National Repository of Grey Literature 8 records found  Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Ecotoxicological Assessment of Point Pollution in the Ecosystem
Doležalová, Šárka ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Koutný, Marek (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
The main subject of this dissertation is the ecotoxicological evaluation of significant point sources of pollution. These include wildfires and wide fires of factories and also industrial and urban wastewater treatment plants. The local application of pyrolytic product obtained from sewage sludge as the point source of pollution was also included in the thesis. Tests in aquatic and contact arrangement with using both water and soil organisms for ecotoxicity evaluation of selected matrices were chosen. Crustaceans Thamnocephalus platyurus, Daphnia magna Straus and sea bacteria Vibrio fischeri were selected as representative organisms of water animals. Duckweed Lemna minor was chosen as water plant. Further collembola Folsomia candida and earthworm Eisenia fetida were chosen as representatives of soil animals. Finally onion Allium cepa L. and mustard Sinapis alba are representatives of terrestrial plants. Submitted thesis deals about analytes of interest, their properties and ways of distribution to the environments. The output of the thesis is a comprehensive assessment of the effects of selected point sources of pollution on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems organisms and ecotoxicological risks assessment. The fire extinguishing agents have been proven to be the most stressful substances for all selecteded organisms.
Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Polymers and Biologically Active Substances in Aquatic Environments
Kašpar, Otakar ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Chýlková, Jaromíra (referee) ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
To determine the ecotoxicity of analgetics, first the individual ecotoxicity values of individual analgetics are determined and then a mixture of two analgetics is tested. To determine the toxicity, both standard and alternative toxicity tests are used (daphnia magna, sinapsis alba, scenedesmus subspicatum, vibrio fischeri, thamnotoxkit FTM a daphnotoxkit FTM magna). The analgetics being whish tested are the commonly used medicines ibuprofen, ASA, diclofenac and paracetamol, which are the most frequently used medicines in the Czech Republic and whole Europe. To determine the ecotoxicity of the polymers, I‘m using an indirect method of examination, in which I determine the antagonistic or synergistic effects of the mixture of monomers from which the polymer is prepared and into which it slowly decomposes in nature. For the determination both standard and alternative toxicity tests are used. The polymers the toxicity of which is being determined are the habitually used polymer PET and the formaldehyde resine known as bakelite in Eastern Europe.
The Introduction of Contact Ecotoxicity Tests for the Assessment of Terrestrial Ecosystems
Modlitbová, Pavlína ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Demnerová, Kateřina (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This dissertation thesis is focus on using toxicity tests with testing organism - terrestrial isopod Porcellio scaber. This organism is use for toxicity assessment of selected anorganic compunds which could contaminate terrestrial ecosystem. This organism was selected for several reasons - sophisticated test methodology; well known biology of these animals and their ecological relevance. Besides classical endpoints such as mortality, change in mass of test specimens and the effect of the presence and concentration of contaminants onto food consumption; we monitored changes in the morphometric characteristics at the level of tissues and cells, the cytotoxicity and possibly bioaccumulation in various parts of the body of the organism. Selected test substance in this thesis were nanoparticles and inorganic salts. Wherein for chosen gold nanoparticles was carried out a complete study presents several levels of organization of living matter (organism, tissue, cell). For selected salts compound, this study was carried out on the behavior of organisms and classical endpoints.
Study of stress markers in plants influenced by heavy metals
Rucký, Jakub ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Provazník, Ivo (advisor)
In our experiment, we examined the influence of Cd2+ in plant tissue culture of sunflower cultivar Aloha. Plant tissue culture were exposed to concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 50, 100 and 500µM for 7 days and were monitored changes in its antioxidant activity. We used monitoring methods ABTS, FRAP, Free Radicals and DPPH. To compare the results obtained, measured data were used program STATISTICA. The objective of statistical evaluation is to determine the concentration at which the plants are still able to withstand the negative effects of non-fatal.
Study of Pharmaceuticals Degradationby Advanced Oxidation Processes
Bílková, Zuzana ; Čáslavský, Josef (referee) ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Zachariášová,, Milena (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
At present, the issue of occurrence of female sex hormones, estrogens and progestogens, in aquatic ecosystems is often discussed by experts and the general public. These substances of steroid structure can be difficult to remove completely by conventional wastewater and drinking water treatment technologies. In given context advanced oxidation processes based on in situ generation of highly reactive hydroxyl radicals can be a suitable technique. This thesis deals with the study of kinetics and degradation products of photocatalytic decomposition of seven female sex hormones (estrone, -estradiol, estriol, ethinylestradiol, diethylstilbestrol, progesterone and norethindrone). Experiments were conducted in a laboratory glass reactor, which was equipped with an energy efficient UV-A LED light source (365 nm emission wavelength) and an immobilised photocatalyst in a form of TiO2 five-layer film deposited on glass. Model samples of water with the initial hormone concentration of 1 mg·L-1 were used and the degradation process was monitored by an HPLC-MS method. In the given system all compounds of interest except estriol had very significant tendency to be adsorb. In the case of estriol the formal rate constant of photocatalytic decomposition was determined based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model for two different initial concentrations, 0.5527 hour-1 (1 mg·L-1) and 0.1929 hour-1 (5 mg·L-1), and by comparison of these values it was found that the higher degraded compound concentration, the slower decomposition (fivefold increase of the initial concentration resulted in the constant decrease to almost one-third). Moreover nine degradation products of estriol photocatalytic decomposition were recorded and their structure was designed based on mass spectra. In the second thematic part of the thesis attention was paid to development of a SPE-HPLC-MS method for simultaneous determination of female sex hormones in water ecosystems, with emphasis on an extraction part optimization. The final samples treatment process included besides extraction with Supel™ Select HLB 200 mg SPE cartridges also mechanical impurities removal, hormones extraction from solids trapped on filtration material, sample acidification and extract purification with Supelclean™ ENVI-Florisil® cartridges. Optimised method was used for determination of female sex hormones in two Brno rivers, Svitava and Svratka. In the most cases the concentration was below the detection or quantification limit.
Ecotoxicological Evaluation of Industrial Waste Materials and Anorganic Composites Containing Waste Materials
Pavlitová Letková, Zuzana ; Zlámalová Gargošová, Helena (referee) ; Pulkrabová,, Jana (referee) ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (advisor)
This work sums up results of tests of ecotoxicity that were made on different kind of industrial waste materials like classical ash, fluid and fly ash, slags as well as anorganic composites containing waste materials. Composites might be used for building materials in the future. Ecotoxicological tests were used for evaluation of ecotoxicity, represented by 4 trophic levels, with several bioindicators evaluated at different exposure time periods. The battery of classical tests includes a growth inhibition test of the freshwater alga Raphidocellis subcapitata, an immobilization test of the cladoceran Daphnia magna and freshwater fish Poecilia reticulata and a test of inhibitive effects on the root growth of white mustards Sinapis alba. Tests with enchytraeidae, collembolan and lettuce were chosen from group of contact tests. It was realized confrontation between classical test with seeds of mustard and contact tests with seeds of lettuce. Results of ecotoxicity tests were determination of percentage of mortality, immobilization, stimulation or inhibition of growth for testing organisms. It was made comparison of results individual ecotixicity tests. Results of classical aquatic tests were compared with contact tests realized in artificial ground.
Application of Selected Methods for Oxidative Stress Analysis
Lízalová, Martina ; Tremlová, Bohuslava (referee) ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Vávrová, Milada (referee) ; Lojek, Antonín (advisor)
Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a heterogeneous disease defined as chronic inflammatory changes of the pancreatic tissue caused by variety of aetiologies. Oxidative stress accompanying the inflammatory processes has been suggested as an important factor contributing to CP development. The aim of this study was to determine levels of lipid peroxidation products malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxynonenal (4-HNE), together with nitrites, the total antioxidant capacity, cytokines, biochemical and haematological parameters in the plasma of patients with CP and control subjects. Levels of MDA and 4-HNE were analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography. The total antioxidant capacity of plasma against peroxyl radicals was evaluated using chemiluminescence determination. Nitrites were determined using Griess reaction. Cytokines - TNF-alfa; TNF RI; PDGF-AB; TGF-beta, together with myeloperoxidase and hyaluronan were determined using ELISA Kits. Biochemical and haematological parameters were measured by standard methods.
The ecotoxicological evaluation of musk compounds
Lapčíková, Alena ; Beklová, Miroslava (referee) ; Doležalová Weissmannová, Helena (advisor)
This master’s thesis is focused on evaluation of synthetic musk fragrances using ecotoxicity tests. Four musk fragrances were tested – Galaxolide, Tonalide, Musk ketone and Musk xylene. Four alternative ecotoxicity tests with living organisms, one standard ecotoxicity test and three fytotests were used for evaluation of ecotoxicity. Alternative tests were performed on crustaceans Daphnia magna and Thamnocephalus platyurus, brine shrimp Artemia salina and rotifer Brachionus calicyflorus. Root growth inhibition test of Sinapis alba, root growth inhibition test of Lactuca sativa, root growth inhibition test of Allium cepa and growth inhibition test of Lemna minor were performed in the terms of fytotests. On the basis of the results the values of EC50, IC50 and LC50 were determined and the ecotoxicity of musk compounds was evaluated.

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