
Zobecněný Moranův proces
Svoboda, Jakub ; Šámal, Robert (advisor) ; Balko, Martin (referee)
The Moran process is a model for simulating evolutionary dynamics. In that model, one mutant with higher fitness is introduced to a structured population. Evolution is simulated in rounds. In one round, individual is selected proportio nally to its fitness and spreads to the place of a random neighbour. In this thesis, we motivate the Moran process, present basic results, and define our variant. We work in a vertex dependent model; every individual has fitness according to its type and occupied vertex. In the vertex dependent model we prove two theorems about the number of steps the process has to make to get to the stable state. We show that on the complete graph, the process takes only polynomially many steps and we find a graph where the process take exponentially many steps, but in the normal settings the number of steps is the same as on the complete graph. 1


Ant colony optimization
Kovács, Peter ; Pangrác, Ondřej (advisor) ; Balko, Martin (referee)
The aim of this work was to compare metaheuristic Ant Colony with other metaheuristics like Simulated Annealing, Tabu Search or Greedy algo rithms. Metaheuristics were compared on three different NPhard problems. Specificaly, Traveling Salesman Problem, Graph Coloring Problem and Set Covering Problem. Detailed description of implementation of metaheuristics in particular problems can be found in this work. Metaheuristics were com pared based on cost function and execution time. However, this work tries to identify instances, in which Ant Colony was the best choice. Ant Colony is reliable metaheuristic on large Traveling Salesman or Set Covering problems.


Structure and enumeration of permutation classes
Karpilovskij, Mark ; Jelínek, Vít (advisor) ; Balko, Martin (referee)
We define the operation of composing two hereditary classes of permutations using the standard composition of permutations as functions and we explore properties and structure of permutation classes considering this operation. We mostly concern ourselves with the problem of whether permutation classes can be composed from their proper subclasses. We provide examples of classes which can be composed from two proper subclasses, classes which can be composed from three but not from two proper subclasses and classes which cannot be composed from any finite number of proper subclasses. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)


Ramseytype results for ordered hypergraphs
Balko, Martin ; Valtr, Pavel (advisor)
Ramseytype results for ordered hypergraphs Martin Balko Abstract We introduce ordered Ramsey numbers, which are an analogue of Ramsey numbers for graphs with a linear ordering on their vertices. We study the growth rate of ordered Ramsey numbers of ordered graphs with respect to the number of vertices. We find ordered match ings whose ordered Ramsey numbers grow superpolynomially. We show that ordered Ramsey numbers of ordered graphs with bounded degeneracy and interval chromatic number are at most polynomial. We prove that ordered Ramsey numbers are at most polynomial for ordered graphs with bounded bandwidth. We find 3regular graphs that have superlinear ordered Ramsey numbers, regardless of the ordering. The last two results solve problems of Conlon, Fox, Lee, and Sudakov. We derive the exact formula for ordered Ramsey numbers of mono tone cycles and use it to obtain the exact formula for geometric Ramsey numbers of cycles that were introduced by K'arolyi et al. We refute a conjecture of Peters and Szekeres about a strengthening of the fa mous Erd˝osSzekeres conjecture to ordered hypergraphs. We obtain the exact formula for the minimum number of crossings in simple xmonotone drawings of complete graphs and provide a combinatorial characterization of these drawings in terms of colorings of ordered...


Viditelnostní grafy
Král, Karel ; Valtr, Pavel (advisor) ; Balko, Martin (referee)
In the thesis we study visibility graphs focusing on the Big Line Big Clique conjecture. For a given finite point set P in real plane we say that two points see each other if and only if the open line segment between them contains no point from P. Points from P are vertices of the visibility graph, and two points are connected by an edge if and only if they see each other. Kára et al. conjectured that for every finite big enough point set there are at least ℓ collinear points, or the clique number of its visibility graph is at least k. In the thesis we generalize the conjecture, and thus provide an alternative proof for k = ℓ = 4. We also review related known results. We strengthen an observation about occurrence of a Hamiltonian cycle in visibility graphs. We characterize the asymptotic behavior of the edge chromatic number of visibility graphs. We show that for given n, ℓ, k the original conjecture is decidable by a computer. We also provide computer experiments both for the generalized and for the original conjecture. 1


Grid representations of graphs and the chromatic number
Balko, Martin ; Valtr, Pavel (advisor) ; Kratochvíl, Jan (referee)
Grid Representations and the Chromatic Number Martin Balko August 2, 2012 Department: Department of Applied Mathematics Supervisor: doc. RNDr. Pavel Valtr Dr. Supervisor's email address: valtr@kam.mff.cuni.cz Abstract In the thesis we study grid drawings of graphs and their connections with graph colorings. A grid drawing of a graph maps vertices to distinct points of the grid Zd and edges to line segments that avoid grid points representing other vertices. We show that a graph G is qd colorable, d, q ≥ 2, if and only if there is a grid drawing of G in Zd in which no line segment intersects more than q grid points. Second, we study grid drawings with bounded number of columns, introducing some new NP complete problems. We also show a sharp lower bound on the area of plane grid drawings of balanced complete kpartite graphs, proving a conjecture of David R. Wood. Finally, we show that any planar graph has a planar grid drawing where every line segment contains exactly two grid points. This result proves conjectures of D. Flores Pe˝naloza and F. J. Zaragoza Martinez. Keywords: graph representations, grid, chromatic number, plane


Dots and Bpxes implementation
Balko, Martin ; Šámal, Robert (referee) ; Pangrác, Ondřej (advisor)
Title: Dots and Boxes implementation Author: Martin Balko Department: Department of Applied Mathematics Supervisor: RNDr. Ondřej Pangrác, Ph.D. Supervisor's email address: pangrac@kam.mff.cuni.cz Abstract: The presented thesis deals with the analysis of a popular logical game Dots and Boxes and its generalized versions. It focuses on the different methods and algorithms of opponent's artificial intelligence. The result of the work is implementation of the generalized version of this game in which a board editing, game with more than two players on the several levels of difficultness and the different face valuations are possible. Keywords: Dots and Boxes, Nimstring, Advanced Chain Counting


Ramseytype results for ordered hypergraphs
Balko, Martin ; Valtr, Pavel (advisor) ; Conlon, David (referee) ; Nešetřil, Jaroslav (referee)
Ramseytype results for ordered hypergraphs Martin Balko Abstract We introduce ordered Ramsey numbers, which are an analogue of Ramsey numbers for graphs with a linear ordering on their vertices. We study the growth rate of ordered Ramsey numbers of ordered graphs with respect to the number of vertices. We find ordered match ings whose ordered Ramsey numbers grow superpolynomially. We show that ordered Ramsey numbers of ordered graphs with bounded degeneracy and interval chromatic number are at most polynomial. We prove that ordered Ramsey numbers are at most polynomial for ordered graphs with bounded bandwidth. We find 3regular graphs that have superlinear ordered Ramsey numbers, regardless of the ordering. The last two results solve problems of Conlon, Fox, Lee, and Sudakov. We derive the exact formula for ordered Ramsey numbers of mono tone cycles and use it to obtain the exact formula for geometric Ramsey numbers of cycles that were introduced by Károlyi et al. We refute a conjecture of Peters and Szekeres about a strengthening of the fa mous Erd˝osSzekeres conjecture to ordered hypergraphs. We obtain the exact formula for the minimum number of crossings in simple xmonotone drawings of complete graphs and provide a combinatorial characterization of these drawings in terms of colorings of ordered...
