National Repository of Grey Literature 47 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Structure and function of microbial communities of montane spruce forest
Štursová, Martina ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Uhlík, Ondřej (referee) ; Slaninová Kyselková, Martina (referee)
Structure and function of soil microbial communities in montane spruce forest Martina Štursová Abstract Coniferous forests are spatially heterogeneous environments and represent an important ecosystem that acts as carbon sink under current climate storing large amounts of carbon in standing biomass or as soil organic matter. The formation of organic matter via decomposition of dead biomass and transformation of rhizodeposited organic compounds is primarily mediated by microbial community of forest topsoil. Despite growing insight into the composition of these soil communities, little is known about the microbes actually responsible for those transformation processes, about the drivers shaping these communities or their response to increasing numbers of severe disturbances. Studies presented in this thesis contribute to filling the information. The studies were carried out in unmanaged spruce forests in the highest elevations of Bohemian Forest, in both, the undisturbed areas as well as those affected by bark beetle outbreaks at different time periods. Combination of methods including culturing of fungi, enzymatic activity measurements or high throughput sequencing were used to describe the microbial communities, their distribution in space and time, and factors involved in shaping these communities in those...
Effects of plants on the structure, function and diversity of bacterial communities
Havlíčková, Petra ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Kopecký, Jan (referee)
Vegetation is known to influence the composition of microbial communities. Bacteria can act as roots symbionts or be involved in the decomposition of plant biomass. They can be influenced by soil chemistry but also by plant exudates. Some plants produce targeted exudates to attract specific bacteria to their roots. Bacteria associate with plants frequently but the effect of plant diversity on bacterial communities on their roots and in the surrounding soil remains unclear. The aim of this work was to describe the relationship between the diversity and community composition of bacteria and the diversity of vegetation in forest and grassland ecosystems. The study areas were selected to represent a gradient of vegetation in Bohemian Forest NP and in White Carpathian flowery grasslands. I hypothesized that the diversity and evenness of bacterial community increase with increasing plant diversity. The composition of bacterial community was characterized by 16S rRNA sequencing. The composition of vegetation was determined by phytocenological relevées and by molecular markers trnL. In grassland ecosystem, there was a positive relationship between plant and bacterial diversity only in shoots. The space and vegetation were identified as an important drivers of bacterial community composition in shoots. The...
Ecology of yeasts in forest soils
Mašínová, Tereza ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Marečková, Markéta (referee) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
Microbial communities inhabiting upper soil horizons represent an important component of forest ecosystems. However, despite the evidence that yeasts represent an integral part of topsoil fungal communities, their role in forest ecosystems received so far little attention. The aims of my PhD thesis were to describe yeast communities in soil and litter of a temperate forest using high- throughput sequencing of environmental DNA, identify dominant yeast species and to explore how the composition of yeast communities reflects the biotic and abiotic factors of the environment. I also aimed to isolate yeasts from forest topsoil, describe novel yeast taxa abundant according to the environmental DNA survey and screen representative isolates for the traits relevant to their involvement in organic matter transformation. I have demonstrated that in forest topsoil, yeasts represent a substantial proportion of fungal communities with higher relative abundance in soil than in litter. In litter, yeast communities differ significantly among beech, oak and spruce-dominated stands. Drivers of community assembly are probably more complex in soils and comprise the effects of soil chemistry and vegetation. Even though there are similarities in the response of the communities of yeasts and filamentous fungi to...
Physiology and ecology of saprotrophic basidiomycetes degrading dead plant biomass
Valášková, Vendula ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Tomšovský, Michal (referee) ; Koukol, Ondřej (referee)
(in English) My theis is focused on soil saprotrophic basiďomycetes, their role in the decomposition of dead plarrt biomass and intera.tioÍts with other members of microbiď community since these fungi play a particularly important role in biotransformation of soil organic matter arrd thereíorealso in the cycling of carbon and mineral nutrients. Three litter.decomposing basiďomycete isolratď from Quelvts petrueo Íorat: Eypholotna tascicularc, Rhodocolly bi,a butgrnrca ard Ggrnnopn sp., efficiently degrarled oak litter unrler both sterile and nonsterile conditions, but the rate of degradation and lignocellulolytic enzyme produc- tion considerably diftbred among isolates. Geuerally, the degrarlation camed by these iso- lates resembled decay caused by whiterot fungi. The fungi produced a broad range of lignocellulose-degrading enzyme: laccase, Mn- peroxidase, endo-I,4-p glucanase, endo-l,4 d >rylanase,p-glucosidase and iJ-xylosidase. Saprotrophic basidiomycetes thus probably contribute to the observed spatial variability in extrarellular enzyme activities in the up per srril horizon in oak forest. Spatial differences in eDzymeactivities were accompanied by diffe.rencesin the microbial commutrity composition, the relative amount of fungal biomass decreased with soil depth. The vertical gradients in soil...
Importance of fungal decomposition of wood in the ecosystems of natural forests
Štercová, Lucie ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Kolařík, Miroslav (referee)
The decomposition of organic substrates represents an important part of the global carbon cycle and affects its global change through CO2 release. In temperate forests, deadwood represents a large carbon stock, its amount and decomposition is crucial for ecosystem biodiversity and functioning. The fungi are omnipresent powerful decayers in all terrestrial ecosystems. Their ability to decompose all deadwood compounds, mainly lignocellulose, is highly important. Without fungi, the wood decompositions and the release of withheld nutrients back to nutrient cycles couldn't be performed. While many studies were concerned with the estimation of decomposition rates of deadwood, still deeper knowledge about microbial decomposition processes and the diversity of saproxylic species and their interaction is needed. The fungi are still underrepresented in dead wood studies. This study had two main objectives. First was to describe the fungal community on downed deadwood of Fagus sylvatica and Abies alba in natural forest of Salajka in the Czech Republic, to reflect the substrate changes during the different decay stages, and to link the enzyme activities to fungal community composition and their described ecophysiologies. Second aim was to describe the fungal communities on standing and downed dead logs of...
Structure and function of bacterial communities during succession on dead plant biomass
Tláskal, Vojtěch ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Marečková, Markéta (referee)
The decomposition of dead plant biomass substantially contributes to the carbon cycle and therefore is one of the key processes in temperate forests. While the role of fungi in litter and deadwood decomposition was repeatedly addressed, there are just a few surveys of bacteria associated with decomposing plant biomass. The development of bacterial community within leaf litter is likely driven by the changes in litter chemistry and by the availability of nutrients in the litter. Fungal activity greatly contributes to changing properties of substrate and thus influences bacterial community. Availability of nutrients is changing during biomass decomposition from easily accessible substrates toward more recalcitrant ones (e.g. lignin). The colonization of deadwood by bacteria is influenced by various factors such as microclimate conditions, tree species and volume. The aim of this thesis was to describe bacterial community dynamics during the first two years of decomposition of leaf litter and deadwood. In the leaf litter experiment, bacterial community was analysed in the live, senescent and decomposing leaves of Quercus petraea. This experiment was performed in the Xaverovsky Haj Natural Reserve, Czech Republic. Deadwood experiment was focused on the composition of bacterial community in the initial...
Vegetation of post-mining sites determines soil microbial community structure and soil processes
Urbanová, Michaela ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Bárta, Jiří (referee) ; Chroňáková, Alica (referee)
Vegetation of post-mining sites determines soil microbial community structure and soil processes Mgr. Michaela Urbanová Abstract The aim of this thesis, which consists of four published articles, was to investigate the effect of vegetation on soil microbial communities and processes in de novo developing soil substrate on the brown-coal spoil heaps in the surrounding of city Sokolov. Spoil material - soil clayey substrate, which had been gradually mined from the opencast brown coal mine, stratified onto spoil heaps and reclaimed by assisted afforestation with selected tree species or left for spontaneous plant succession, changes its biotic and abiotic characteristic in the course of time and particularly under the influence of plants. Changes of spoil substrate characteristics are related to the growth of plant roots and particularly also to the production of plant biomass, which is decomposed gradually and takes part of soil, where participates to soil organic matter. The process of plant dead materials decomposition and transformation is the function of the activity of soil organisms and among them notably soil microorganisms. Moreover, the presence of many of them is closely related to the presence of vegetation, whose symbionts or pathogens are. The exact mechanisms of the plant-microbes interactions...
Combination of biochemical and high-throughput-sequencing approaches to study the role of Antinobacteria and fungi in the decomposition of plant biomass
Větrovský, Tomáš ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Slaninová Kyselková, Martina (referee) ; Tomšovský, Michal (referee)
Dead plant biomass is a key pool of carbon in terrestrial ecosystems. Its decomposition in soil environments is thus an essential process of the carbon cycle. Fungi are considered to be the primary decomposers in soil ecosystems because of their physiological adaptations and enzymatic apparatus composed from highly effective oxidative and hydrolytic enzymes. Many recent works show that in addition to fungi, bacteria may also play a significant role in lignocellulose decomposition and among bacteria, the members of the phylum Actinobacteria are often regarded to significantly contribute to cellulose and lignocellulose decomposition. This thesis is focused on the evaluation of the role that fungi and Actinobacteria play in dead plant biomass degradation. First, it explored mechanisms involved in degradation, in particular the enzymatic breakdown of major lignocellulose components as cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin. Enzymatic apparatus of the saprotrophic fungus Fomes fomentarius was explored both in vitro as well as in vivo. Several Actinobacteria were isolated from soil and comparative experiments, investigating production of hydrolytic enzymes, were carried out to track the transformation of polysaccharides and lignin by these strains. To explain the roles of lignocellulose decomposers in...
Change of structure and function of a fungal comunnities in the soil environment after the end of the flowassimilates with Norway spruce (Picea abies)
Charvátová, Markéta ; Baldrian, Petr (advisor) ; Mrnka, Libor (referee)
The decomposition of plant biomass is associated with changes of the associated fungal community which is crucial in the process of degradation due to their production of extracellular enzymes. Moreover, fungal communities as well as enzymatic activity are specific for soil microhabitats. This thesis focused on the importance of fungi associated with the roots of Norway spruce (Picea abies) trees. Forest with dominating Norway spruce, located in the School Forest Enterprise Křtiny area in Moravia, was selected for the experiment. The aim of this thesis was to compare the community composition of fungi in the roots, rhizosphere and bulk soil and to describe the gradual development of this community after the death of the roots. The next aim was to isolate, describe and characterize those fungi that decomposed roots 5 and 9 months after tree harvest. Identification of fungal isolates was based on DNA sequencing. Degradation capabilities were determined as the activity of enzymes involved in the degradation of lignocellulose. Composition of fungal communities was described by sequencing of environmental DNA on the Illumina platform. Before the flow of assimilates from the live trees stopped, communities of ectomycorrhizal fungi dominated with 60 % of all sequences. Increased abundance of saprotrophic...

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