National Repository of Grey Literature 42 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Ornament expression and lifetime reproductive success in male barn swallows (Hirundo rustica)
Wnuková, Lucie ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Klvaňová, Alena (referee)
Within a lifetime of an individual, there are changes in the organism leading to an an impairment of phenotype, survival and reproduction. The expression of phenotypic traits often increases with age. Higher expression of these traits in the young age can lead to decreased probability of survival till the next season, influencing reproductive success of an individual. That is why organisms are challenged with trade-offs, when they have to allocate their limited resources either into the reproduction in form of expression of extravagant sex ornaments or into the life span. If the ornament evolved as a handicap, its exaggerated size could reduce viability of low quality individuals. Therefore, the ornament becomes a predictor of quality of its bearer and its size indicates the ability to survive till the next season. Both sexual ornamentation and inter-individual variation in life span may result in differences in reproductive success (fitness) and targeted by sexual or natural selection. Variability in reproductive success, mainly in monogamous species, can be increased also by sexual promiscuity and extra-pair mating and extra-pair copulations. This strategy can increase the opportunity for selection of traits that play role in choosing of extra-pair mate. In this work, I focused on two potential...
Latitudinal trend in feather growth rates and steroid hormone concentrations in avian feathers
Brzobohatá, Tereza ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Sedláček, Ondřej (referee)
Avian life histories range along the axis from slow to fast, with slow life histories being characterized by greater investments in future reproduction, and fast by greater investments in current reproduction. The concept of pace-of-life syndromes refers to the coevolution of life strategies and related physiological, immunological and behavioral traits. Avian species from tropical areas are characterised by slower life histories (longer parental care, later maturation, smaller clutches, reduced metabolic rate) when compared to temperate zone species. Within this latitudinal gradient, investments in the total amount (weight) of body feathers have also been shown to be reduced in tropical birds. It remains unclear, however, whether feather growth itself follows this latitudinal pattern, and is slower in tropical species. Tropical birds have lower basal levels of corticosterone and testosterone, however available studies are based mainly on analyzes of hormone concentrations from plasma. The first aim of this diploma thesis was to evaluate differences between tropical (Cameroon) and temperate zone (the Czech Republic) passerine species in investments in tail feather growth by using methods of comparative ptilochronology. The second aim of the diploma thesis was to analyze concentrations of steroid...
Postcopulatory sexual selection on phenotypic traits in European barn swallows
Míčková, Kristýna ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Svobodová, Jana (referee)
Sperm phenotype is an essential indicator of the male ejaculate quality and may have a significant impact on male reproductive success. Sperm phenotypes are considerably variable across species but variation is also found among males within species. This thesis examines (1) variation in sperm phenotypes among males in barn swallows (Hirundo rustica), (2) changes in male ejaculate quality with age, (3) relationships between sperm morphology and motility, (4) effects of sperm phenotypes (morphology and motility) on male fertilization success, using a large dataset of 174 observation for 130 males, and (5) the influence of female reproductive environment on sperm motility. From the tested variables, only midpiece length correlated with male age. Older males had shorter midpiece but no relationship between male age and reproductive success was found. Sperm length negatively affected sperm motility and, simultaneosly, relative midpiece length posively correlated with sperm motility. No correlation was found between the male reproductive success and sperm motility, presence of abnormalities, length of outermost tail feathers or age. Males with shorter relative midpiece were more successful in within-pair paternity, and males with shorter sperms but longer relative midpiece were more successful in...
Condition dependence of sexually selected ornaments in birds
Tomášek, Oldřich ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Verhulst, Simon (referee) ; Šálek, Miroslav (referee)
Sexual ornaments important for mating success in many species are often assumed to evolve as condition-dependent signals of individual quality. Ornament expression can be associated with age and survival, thereby signalling individual viability. Here, we have tested viability signalling function of tail streamers and their importance for within-pair and extra-pair fertilisation success in the European barn swallow (Hirundo rustica rustica). In contrast to previous studies on this subspecies, our data suggest that tail length is not associated with fertilisation success in our population. Instead, the most important predictors of within-pair and extra-pair fertilisation success were female and male age, respectively. Our data supported viability signalling function of male tail streamers, as documented by age-related within- individual increase in their length. There was no evidence for senescence in this trait. Contrary to some previous studies, the viability signalling function of tail streamers was further supported by observed selective disappearance of males with shorter tails. Several physiological mechanisms have been proposed as maintaining signalling honesty. Among them, oxidative stress from highly reactive species (RS), including free radicals, attracted a considerable attention. Given...
Interactive effects of carotenoid supplementation and oxidative stress on sperm morphology, sperm quality and spermatogenesis in the Zebra finches
Bílková, Karolína ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Jonáková, Věra (referee)
The phenotype-linked fertility hypothesis predicts that both, male carotenoid-based sexual ornamentation and their spermatozoa are phenotypically plastic and may be co-affected by the environment. One of the factors affecting their phenotype may be oxidative stress and the ability of organism to eliminate its effect. Oxidative stress may reduce sperm quality because sperm lack the ability to repair DNA, but it can also affect spermatogenesis itself. However, some substances may function as antioxidants, and thus eliminate effect of reactive oxygen species (oxidative stress) in the body. In this study, adult zebra finch males (Taeniopygia guttata) originating from the domesticated and recently wild-derived populations were exposed to the diquat (D), which enhances the oxidative stress, and carotenoid lutein (L), which could have an antioxidant function. Experimental design had factorial character 2x2 with a control (group L, D, LD, control). Neither oxidative stress, carotenoids, nor their interactions affected sperm morphology or velocity and it also did not increase abnormal sperm proportion in the ejaculate. However, the differences were observed at the molecular level, where by inducing the oxidative stress, the sperm had reduced signal intensity of acetylated α-tubulin in the sperm tails....
Distribution of predators, predation risk and antipredation strategies in waterfowl
Kreisinger, Jakub ; Albrecht, Tomáš (advisor) ; Bureš, Stanislav (referee) ; Tkadlec, Emil (referee)
Jakub Kreisinger - summary of the Ph.D. thesis: Predation is an important selective force affecting many evolutionary and ecological process. Anthropogenic landscape changes often alter these processes due to qualitative and quantitative changes in the predator comunity. This thesis contains four papers that are focused on various aspects of the nest predation, antipredation strategies and distribution of predators in the landscape modified by human activities. The first contribution "Nest protection in mallards (Anas plathyrhynchos): Untangling the role of crypsis and parental behaviour" (Kreisinger & Albrecht 2008) focus on the effect of antipredation strategies on the reproductive success in a ground nesting bird, mallard. Our data are consistent with the hypothesis that multiple antipredation strategies including nest site selection parental antipredation behavior and crypsis due to clutch concealment by the nest material during incubation recesses reduce sumultaniousely the risk of the clutch predation in birds. Contrary to some previous studies, the relative effects of crypsis and parental anti-predation behaviour on nest survival did not differ with respect to antipredation effect of the nest concealment by surrounding vegetation. The hypothesis that linear strips of shrubby vegetation and high grass...

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