National Repository of Grey Literature 21 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Essays in Empirical Financial Economics
Žigraiová, Diana ; Jakubík, Petr (advisor) ; Witzany, Jiří (referee) ; Teplý, Petr (referee) ; Gächter, Martin (referee)
This dissertation is composed of four essays that empirically investigate three topics in financial economics; financial stress and its leading indicators, the relationship between bank competition and financial stability, and the link between management board composition and bank risk. In the first essay we examine which variables have predictive power for financial stress in 25 OECD countries, using a recently constructed financial stress index. We find that panel models can hardly explain FSI dynamics. Although better results are achieved in country models, our findings suggest that financial stress is hard to predict out-of- sample despite the reasonably good in-sample performance of the models. The second essay develops an early warning framework for assessing systemic risks and predicting systemic events over two horizons of different length on a panel of 14 countries. We build a financial stress index to identify the starting dates of systemic financial crises and select crisis-leading indicators in a two-step approach; we find relevant prediction horizons for each indicator and employ Bayesian model averaging to identify the most useful predictors. We find superior performance of the long-horizon model for the Czech Republic. The theoretical literature gives conflicting predictions on how bank...
Essays in Empirical Financial Economics
Žigraiová, Diana ; Jakubík, Petr (advisor) ; Witzany, Jiří (referee) ; Teplý, Petr (referee) ; Gächter, Martin (referee)
This dissertation is composed of four essays that empirically investigate three topics in financial economics; financial stress and its leading indicators, the relationship between bank competition and financial stability, and the link between management board composition and bank risk. In the first essay we examine which variables have predictive power for financial stress in 25 OECD countries, using a recently constructed financial stress index. We find that panel models can hardly explain FSI dynamics. Although better results are achieved in country models, our findings suggest that financial stress is hard to predict out-of- sample despite the reasonably good in-sample performance of the models. The second essay develops an early warning framework for assessing systemic risks and predicting systemic events over two horizons of different length on a panel of 14 countries. We build a financial stress index to identify the starting dates of systemic financial crises and select crisis-leading indicators in a two-step approach; we find relevant prediction horizons for each indicator and employ Bayesian model averaging to identify the most useful predictors. We find superior performance of the long-horizon model for the Czech Republic. The theoretical literature gives conflicting predictions on how bank...
The impact of electric vehicles on the automobile industry
Pavelková, Adéla ; Chytilová, Julie (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
The main aim of this bachelor thesis is to identify the current and future importance of the electric vehicles. Apart from global situation, it also investigates the development in China, Europe, Norway and the U.S. To see the future position of electric vehicles on the automotive market, trend analysis and Bass Diffusion Model were used. The results showed that in the year 2035, the share of sales of electric vehicles will slowly approach a threshold of 50% in all analysed regions. The exception is Norway where the market of electric vehicles is already developed. Next, the correlation analysis was applied to measure the relationship between the sales of electric vehicles and internal combustion engine vehicles. It was shown that the correlation is relatively strong with the same direction. The sales are influenced by similar factors. Furthermore, the correlation analysis was used to detect the relationship between the sales of electric vehicles and price of gasoline. The coefficient was positive. At the end, the regression analysis was applied to measure the cross elasticity of demand between electric and internal combustion engine vehicles. It was proved that these vehicles are substitutes. That means that the price of internal combustion engine vehicle can affect the sales of electric vehicles.
Presidential rhetoric, sentiment and their relation to stock markets
Partelová, Mária ; Šopov, Boril (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
This thesis intends to uncover the linkages between the emotions contained within remarks of the president of the United States expressed on Twitter and movements of the stock market indices. The daily comments of the two consecutive presidents, Barack Obama and Donald Trump are annotated with sentiment intensity values using the lexicon-based model called VADER. Our analysis further focuses on testing for Granger causality using the bivariate vector autoregression. Overall, three major stock market indices are employed in testing, namely DJIA, S&P 500 and NASDAQ. The results yield a statistically significant Granger causal relationship in the case of the first differences of DJIA and S&P 500 logarithms with time series of Barack Obama's sentiment values.
Updating the Ultimate Forward Rate over Time: a Possible Approach
Žigraiová, Diana ; Jakubík, Petr
This study proposes a potential methodological approach to be used by regulators when updating the Ultimate Forward Rate (UFR) for the evaluation of insurers’ liabilities beyond the last liquid point observable in the market. Our approach is based on the optimisation of two contradictory aspects – stability and accuracy implied by economic fundamentals. We use U.S. Treasury term structure data over the period 1985-2015 to calibrate an algorithm that dynamically revises the UFR based on the distance between the value implied by the long-term growth of economic fundamentals in a given year and the regulatory value of the UFR valid in the prior year. We employ both the Nelson-Siegel and Svensson models to extrapolate yields over maturities of 21-30 years employing the selected value of the UFR and compare them with the observed yields using the mean square error statistic. Furthermore, we optimise the parameters of the proposed UFR formula by minimising the defined loss function capturing both mentioned factors.
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Catholic Religion, Corporate Governance, and Executive Compensation
Šarapatka, Jan ; Novák, Jiří (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
I find a significant positive compensation premium for executives employed by firms headquartered in Catholic counties. I document that the compensation premium holds only for board member executives and that it is related to weaker corporate governance in Catholic regions. In addition, I explore several corporate governance measures and reveal that weaker corporate governance is a result of more developed connection networks among executives in Catholic regions. I document that even though a denser executive's social network is associated with worse operating performance, it enables the executive to reach higher pay. Therefore, I suggest that executives in Catholic regions are using their more developed social networks and weaker corporate governance to extract additional rents from the firm. My findings are consistent with a larger development of social ties in more community-focused Catholic regions than in more individualistic Protestant regions. I contribute by showing how religion deters efficiency of the top executive labor market through social ties.
The impact of Basel III on trade finance
Malešová, Jana ; Teplý, Petr (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
The thesis focuses on the impact of the banking regulation Basel III on bank-intermediated trade finance. The theoretical part of the thesis explains details of Basel III requirements, history of Basel Accords and their future in the form of Basel IV, characteristics of trade finance products and of the whole industry. Trade finance industry voiced worries about the negative effect that these new requirements might have on trade finance business. The thesis estimates determinants of bank-intermediated trade finance and includes a regulatory variable. We use trade finance data from the Czech Republic and Hong Kong in 2000−2014 and from India in 2007−2014. A negative effect of Basel III on trade finance growth is found using pooled OLS regression. Contrary to previous research, we also estimate a negative coefficient of banks' capital to assets ratios. To the best of our knowledge, the thesis provides the first empirical analysis of the impact of Basel III on trade finance. Trade finance research usually focuses more on the relationship of trade finance and trade flows and the thesis provides an extensive literature summary of this topic. The final part of the thesis contrasts different levels of risk of trade finance and shows that the imputed low-riskiness does not apply to the Czech data.
Caps on Loan-to-Value ratio: Can they reduce housing bubble and credit growth?
Šubáková, Dominika ; Jašová, Martina (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
An increasing trend of using macroprudential instrument, caps on loan-to-value (LTV) ratio, requires a full understanding of how the instrument works in practice. As the empirical research is still scant, this thesis attempts to contribute with a new evidence on LTV effectiveness in context of six developed economies, namely Netherlands, Sweden, Ireland, Hungary, Latvia and Lithuania. To achieve this objective we analyse the impact of caps on LTV on credit growth, mortgage credit-to- GDP ratio and price growth. LTV limits are not a harmonised measure and its national-level implementation includes numerous specificities that can hinder cross-country comparisons. As a result, this thesis proposes a construction of LTV index reflecting specific aspects of the measure. Using the LTV Index we confirmed a slowdown of credit, mortgage and price growth. JEL Classification E44, E51, E52, E58, G21 Key words caps on loan-to-value ratio, maximum LTV ratio, macroprudential policy, credit-related instruments, LTV Index, house price growth, credit growth, financial stability.
Measuring and explaining the extent of occupational gender segregation
Ranošová, Tereza ; Pertold-Gebicka, Barbara (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
Occupational gender segregation is one of the most visible characteristics of labour markets all over the world, the Czech Republic is not an exception. In 2013 more than 57% of employed men or women would have to change their job so that the proportion of each gender could be the same in each occupation. The measure increases to 60.19% when housework is treated as another occupation. Moreover, men are often almost completely isolated from women - more than 18% of them work in an occupation with less than one percent of female colleagues. Unexpectedly, the youngest cohorts in the sample experience higher segregation than men and women in their thirties and forties. In the second half of the thesis occupations are characterised by their demanded abilities and work styles, contexts, values and interests (utilizing the O*NET database). It is tested which of these characteristics actually matter for the concentration of men or women in an occupation. Altogether, eighteen characteristics proved significant. The most surprising result is that higher demanded levels of mathematics and memorization attract the opposite gender than is assumed in the literature. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Should monetary policy pay attention to financial stability? A DSGE approach
Žáček, Jan ; Holub, Tomáš (advisor) ; Žigraiová, Diana (referee)
After the recent financial crisis of 2007, a connection between monetary policy and financial stability has started to be thoroughly investigated. One of the particular areas of this research field deals with the role of various financial variables in the monetary policy rules. The main purpose of this research is to find whether direct incorporation of the financial variables in the monetary policy rule can bring macroeconomic benefits in terms of lower volatility of inflation and output. So far, the main emphasis of the research has been placed on the investigation of the augmented Taylor rules in the context of a closed economy. This thesis sheds light on the performance of the augmented Taylor rules in a small open economy. For this purpose, a New Keynesian DSGE model with two types of financial frictions is constructed. The model is calibrated for the Czech Republic. The thesis provides four conclusions. First, incorporation of the financial variables (asset prices and the volume of credit) in the monetary policy rule is beneficial for macroeconomic stabilization in terms of lower implied volatilities of inflation and output. Second, the usefulness of the augmented monetary policy rule is the most apparent in case of the shock originating abroad. Third, there is a strong link between the financial and the...

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