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NMR Aerosolomics as a Tool to Distinguish Various Types of Aerosol Samples.
Horník, Štěpán ; Schwarz, Jaroslav ; Ždímal, Vladimír ; Sýkora, Jan
In the recent study, the summer and winter aerosol samples were analyzed using NMR aerosolomics approach. The samples were collected in Prague-Suchdol during summer 2008 and winter 2009 in two different particle size fractions - PM2.5 and PM 10. Around 50 compounds were identified in each aerosol spectrum owing to the comprehensive library. The profile of 86 identified compounds, which were identified in the samples altogether, served as an input data for statistical analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis clearly discriminates the two groups studied. Furthermore, it is possible to determine the most significant compounds.
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NMR Aerosolomics as a Tool to Distinguish Various Types of Aerosol Samples.
Horník, Štěpán ; Schwarz, Jaroslav ; Ždímal, Vladimír ; Sýkora, Jan
In the recent study, the summer and winter aerosol samples were analyzed using NMR aerosolomics approach. The samples were collected in Prague-Suchdol during summer 2008 and winter 2009 in two different particle size fractions - PM2.5 and PM 10. Around 50 compounds were identified in each aerosol spectrum owing to the comprehensive library. The profile of 86 identified compounds, which were identified in the samples altogether, served as an input data for statistical analysis. Multivariate statistical analysis clearly discriminates the two groups studied. Furthermore, it is possible to determine the most significant compounds.
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Spatial heterogeneity of selected soil properties assessed from airborne imaging spectroscopy and satellite imagery data
Zemek, František ; Pikl, Miroslav ; Lukas, Vojtěch ; Ždímal, V. ; Kraus, M. ; Širůček, P.
The methodology aims at presenting new and economically efficient approaches to assessment of spatial heterogeneity of selected properties of bare soils. There are three key features the authors paid attention: 1/the simplicity in usage with keeping sufficient accuracy, 2/data availability, 3/economic aspects allowing application to many users. The methodology covers two complementary parts. The first one gives an overview of laboratory and field soil spectroscopy. It is followed by a detail description of practical application of airborne hyperspectral and satellite multispectral data in assessment of spatial heterogeneity of bare soils. All applied methods have been developed and tested on scale of medium size farm.
Comparison of Atmospheric Aerosol Sources at Suburban and Rural Stations
Makeš, Otakar ; Schwarz, Jaroslav ; Vodička, Petr ; Ždímal, Vladimír
This article discusses source apportionment analysis of fine aerosol fraction measured by C-ToF AMS at two different sites. The result of the analysis is a comparison of the aerosol sources between suburban and background sites during summer and winter season.
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Cloud Processing of Atmospheric Aerosol Spectra.
Zíková, Naděžda ; Pokorná, Petra ; Pešice, Petr ; Sedlák, Pavel ; Ždímal, Vladimír
Atmospheric aerosol (AA), and its influence on the cloud formation, lifetime and other properties, remains the most uncertain (with low confidence level) element in the IPCC radiative forcing estimations (Stocker et al., 2013). The AA, however, is influenced by the cloud processing as well (Collett et al., 2008., Zíková and Ždímal, 2016). Cloud processing of AA (and vice versa) can be described on fogs, or on low clouds present at a suitable station. An example of such a station is Milešovka, where fog is present for almost 55 % of the time (Fišák et al., 2009), giving a great opportunity to explore the changes in the particle size distributions due to the cloud processing.
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The Distinctive Changes of Particles' Numeric Concentrations, Are Caused by Electrostatic Flue Gases Cleaning.
Molchanov, O. ; Krpec, K. ; Horák, J. ; Hopan, F. ; Ždímal, Vladimír ; Schwarz, Jaroslav
A burning processes are always accompanied by emissions, and solid fuel combustion is believed to be the main source of dust releases. Solid fuels are predominant for using by boilers under 300 kW, which are mostly use for heating the domestic buildings and small premises in industrial and other use. It is well known, that using such boilers is inevitably involves the pollution releases, among which are emissions of oxides of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur oxides and particulate matters. After 2020 all boilers in European Union are have to be consistent with the list of ecological norms, and norm ECODESIGN is the one of them. This norm, inter alia, means that PM concentration could not exceed 40 mg/m3N. Such legislative measures are compelling the producers to make steps to decrease boiler´s pollutions. However, it is hard to achieve the desired results by optimization of burning processes only. That´s why arises a need to equip the boilers with the gas cleaning units. Within this context, precipitation particulate matter with electrostatic method is one of the most perspective. Within studies to optimize the constructional and high voltages parameters of ESP, it was appeared unusual phenomenon, which has describing below.\n
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Characterization of Nitrogen Isotopic Composition in Fine Aerosol at a Central European Rural Background Station.
Vodička, Petr ; Kawamura, K. ; Schwarz, Jaroslav ; Kunwar, B. ; Ždímal, Vladimír
Studies of isotope ratios in atmospheric aerosols is relativelly new approach which can provide unique information on source emissions together with physical and chemical processes in the atmosphere (e.g. Kawamura et al., 2004). Here, we present seasonal variations in δ15N of total nitrogen (TN) in the PM1 fraction of atmospheric aerosols at a rural background site in Central Europe.\n
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Air Pollution Origin Based on One-year PM2.5 and PM10 Measurement at Two Suburban Sites in Prague.
Pokorná, Petra ; Schwarz, Jaroslav ; Rychlík, Š. ; Škáchová, H. ; Smolík, Jiří ; Ždímal, Vladimír ; Vlček, O. ; Hůnová, I.
The objective of this study was to determine air pollution origin in Prague based on the chemical composition of 24h atmospheric aerosol (AA) samples collected in parallel for one-year at two suburban sites. Chemical analysis of PM2.5 and PM10 for elements by ICP-MS, for elemental and organic carbon by thermo-optical method and water-soluble inorganic ions by IC was performed. The AA in Prague air shed was well mixed and nine common PM10 sources of local, urban, regional and long range transport (LRT) origin were apportioned.
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Hydroscopic Behaviours of Ammonium Sulfate/Organic Mixtures Including Dicarboxylic Acid and Oligomer.
Bouzidi, Hichem ; Zuend, A. ; Ondráček, Jakub ; Schwarz, Jaroslav ; Ždímal, Vladimír
Here, the hygroscopic behavior of submicron particles composed of ammonium sulfate (AS), dicarboxylic acids (including oxalic acid (OA), malonic acid (MA)), and oligomer Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG-300 (-CH2OCH2-)n) is investigated with a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (HTDMA), under relative humidity (RH) below 100%. The aerosol systems were varied in their complexity and ranged from single-component to more complex systems (2, 3 and 4 components). The experimental data are compared with predictions from Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule (Stokes and Robinson, 1966) and the thermodynamic model Aerosol Inorganic-Organic Mixtures Functional groups Activity Coefficients (AIOMFAC) (Zuend et al., 2011).
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Size Distribution of Particles from Inhalers - Influence of Inspiratory Flow Rate and Humidity.
Ondráčková, Lucie ; Ondráček, Jakub ; Kozáková, Jana ; Ždímal, Vladimír
The purpose of this research was to determine the influence of inspiratory flow rate and relative humidity on particle size distributions (PSDs) generated by three MDI inhalers (Flutiform, Fullhale and Ventolin) and one DPI inhaler (Spiriva). Particle size distributions were measured by APS 3321 (TSI, USA) for three different inspiratory flow rates – 30, 60 and 90 l/min. Hygroscopicity of particles was determined by comparing data obtained at laboratory conditions and at relative humidity of 90%. During the measurements of number PSDs by using of APS spectrometer, we recorded bimodal distributions for Flutiform and Fullhale and monomodal distributions for Ventolin and DPI Spiriva. The increasing inspiratory flow rate had a negligible effect on the position of modes of individual distributions. The differences in PSD, measured under ambient conditions and at RH of 90%, were also minimal and did not significantly affect the assumed probability of drug deposition.
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2 Ždímal, V.
9 Ždímal, Vladimír
1 Ždímal, Václav
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