National Repository of Grey Literature 46 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
The use of magnetic resonance spectroscopy for studying glucose metabolism
Kratochvílová, Simona ; Pelikánová, Terezie (advisor) ; Štich, Vladimír (referee) ; Polák, Jan (referee)
Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is a noninvasive technique that enables to follow metabolic processes in selected tissues in vivo. Recently the attention has been focused on metabolic mapping in target organs of insulin action to describe the pathophysiology of insulin resistance. The aim of our study was to present the practical application of ³¹P (phosphorus) MRS and ¹H (proton) MRS in metabolic studies of skeletal muscle in insulin resistant subjects and in subjects with impaired fasting glucose. The third study was aimed to evaluate the brain metabolism with ¹H MRS in healthy controls and subjects with type 1 diabetes during hyperinsulinemia. ¹H and ³¹P MRS were performed using a MR Scanner Siemens Vision operating at 1,5 Tesla. To assess the parameters of glucose metabolism and insulin action oral glucose tolerance test and hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp were performed. The study 1 was aimed to evaluate the skeletal muscle (m. soleus) energetic metabolism in the offspring of hypertensive parents (OH) with a higher level of insulin resistance. The concentrations of selected high energy phosphates (phosphocreatine, inorganic phosphate, adenosintriphosphate, phosphomonoesters, phosphodiesters) were evaluated with ³¹P MRS. Their amount in OH was comparable to healthy controls. However we...
Role of adiponectin and B-type natriuretic peptide in the regulation of adipose tissue lipolysis
Wedellová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Kunešová, Marie (referee) ; Cahová, Monika (referee) ; Horáková, Olga (referee)
Obesity is a most common metabolic disorder worldwide. Prevalence of obesity is consistently growing in all continents during last years. Primarily the increase of incidence of obesity in children is alarming. Obesity is linked to elevated risk of type 2 diabetes, hyperlipidemia, cardiovascular diseases, some cancers and disorders of musculoskeletal system. The cost of the treatment of diseases linked to obesity is annually increasing and obesity represents very important part of costs of health system in developed - and recently also developing - countries. This fact shows the necessity of research in the area of preventive and therapeutic procedures. The development of metabolic disturbances linked to obesity is associated with dysfunction of adipose tissue. Its two main features are: 1) altered secretion of specific substance with hormonal or paracrinne charakter (called adipokines) and 2) elevated mobilization of non- esterified fatty acids (NEMK) from adipose tissue and subsequently their increased release into the circulation (1). In our studies we paid attention to the study of lipolysis. The rate of lipolysis is the primary factor that determines the release of NEFA from adipose tissue. We focused to a role of adiponectin and natriuretic peptid type B (BNP) in the regulation of lipolysis in...
Physiologic and pathophysiologic aspects of selected endocrinopathies. Their relationship to adipose tissue matebolism and insulin resistance
Ďurovcová, Viktória ; Kršek, Michal (advisor) ; Saudek, František (referee) ; Štich, Vladimír (referee)
The pathogenesis of insulin resistance is a complex and still intensively studied issue. Endocrine and paracrine activity of the adipose tissue together with mi- tochondrial dysfunction are the most discussed potential factors included in the development of insulin resistance. In the first part of our study we examined the involvement of the adipose tissue and its secretory products in the etiopathogenesis of insulin resistance in patients with Cushing's syndrome, acromegaly and simple obesity. We focused on three important regulators of metabolic homeostasis - fibroblast growth factors 21 and 19 (FGF-21 and FGF-19) and adipocyte fatty acid binding protein (FABP-4). We found significantly elevated circulating levels of FGF-21 and FABP-4 ac- companying insulin resistance in both patients with simple obesity and patients with obesity connected to Cushing's syndrome, as compared to healthy controls. The concentrations of both substances were comparable between hypercortisolic and obese patients. This finding together with the absence of correlation be- tween the levels of FGF-21 resp. FABP-4 and cortisol suggest that the reason for elevation of their concentrations is obesity and its metabolic consequences themselves rather then the effect of hypercortisolism on FGF-21 and FABP-4 production. We found no...
Regulation of adiponectin and its isoforms production in human obesity
Kováčová, Zuzana ; Štich, Vladimír (advisor) ; Hainer, Vojtěch (referee) ; Kazdová, Ludmila (referee) ; Rossmeisl, Martin (referee)
It is apparent that the imbalance in energy intake and expenditure coming hand-to-hand with the "westernisation" of our lifestyle leads to an elevated number of overweight and obese individuals that are commonly in a greater risk of developing chronic complications (e.g. insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases) with increased mortality. The development of obesity-related complications closely relate with dysfunction of adipose tissue leading to the peripheral insulin resistance and metabolic disruption of insulin sensitive organs (e.g. muscle, liver) subsequently inducing whole body insulin resistance. Since adipose tissue is the biggest endocrine organ in the human body producing many hormones influencing functions of adipose tissue itself or other organs, alteration of their spectrum has been revealed as one of the possible inductors or contributors disturbing body energy homeostasis. Adipose tissue serves as a major site for storage of surplus nutritions, however, long-term positive energy imbalance and high dose calorie intake lead not only to expansion of fat mass but mainly to the pathological changes of the tissue. In states of obesity, adipose tissue is under constant metabolic stress, resulting in the activation of the stress and inflammatory response. It leads to...

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