National Repository of Grey Literature 12 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
The effect of air pollution on the incidence of asthma symptoms
Velická, Helena ; Štípek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Bencko, Vladimír (referee) ; Rychlíková, Eva (referee)
The effect of air pollution on the incidence of asthma symptoms MUDr. Helena Velická ABSTRACT The aim of the thesis was to establish the effect of short-term ambient air pollutant concentration changes on asthma exacerbation and symptom variability. The study concerned 147 child patients (age 6 - 18 years) and 304 adult patients (age 19 - 62 years) with confirmed diagnosis of asthma. Their respiratory symptoms and other complaints were recorded in diaries during the heating season (November 2013 - February 2014) in the high- polluted industrial city of Ostrava, Czech Republic. The concentrations of PM10, NO2 and SO2 were measured and provided as smoothed daily maps. GPS coordinates of two addresses of each respondent (the residence and the school/work) were linked with the maps and 24-hour exposure of the respondents to each pollutant was determined, regarding the individuals'daily pattern. The relationships between exposures and health effects were analyzed using Generalized Additive Models (GAM) and expressed as odds ratios per 10 µg/m3 increase in the mean 24-hour exposure at the same day, and also in lag days (1-5), both separately and as moving averages (1-5). Significant associations were found between increase of one- to several days exposure to air pollutants and asthma symptom incidence both in...
Physical factors influencing the development of corneal damage by UV rays
Čejka, Čestmír ; Rosina, Jozef (advisor) ; Štípek, Stanislav (referee) ; Amler, Evžen (referee) ; Salminen, Lotta (referee)
Purpose: The purpose of the Thesis "Physical factors influencing the development of corneal damage by UV rays" was a) to determine the light absorption properties in the rabbit cornea irradiated with UVB rays by measuring of physical values of absorbance A and transmittance T as functions of wavelength ; b) To investigate the absorption coefficient as a function of wavelength ; c) To evaluate the importance of this coefficient for corneal light absorption properties; d) To determine the light absorption properties in the rabbit cornea irradiated with UVA by measuring of physical values of absorbance A and transmittance T as functions of wavelength (to compare the effect of UVA with UVB rays). Material and Methods: To achieve individual aims, the new spectrohotometrical method was developed and following experimets were performed: a) Repeted irradiation of the rabbit cornea with UVB rays (daily dose 1.01 J/cm2 during 5 days); b) Repeated irradiation of the rabbit cornea with UVA rays (daily dose 1.01 J/cm2 or 2.02 J/cm2) during five days; c) Repeated irradiation of the rabbit cornea with the daily dose of 1.01 J/cm2 during 4 days and in individual time intervals investigation of corneal light absorption and hydration changes; d) The anti-UV efficacy of UV filter (actinoquinol combined with hyaluronic acid,...
Alimentary intake of fluoride in preschool children in dental caries prevention
Oganessian, Edgar ; Broukal, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Štípek, Stanislav (referee) ; Veverka, Jan (referee)
The primary prevention of dental caries includes the regular reduction of dental plaque, the adequate nutrition with reduced frequency of sugar intake and the application of topical and/or alimentary fluorides. The caries-protective effect of fluorides is based on the stabilization of demineralization/remineralization processes in the surface of teeth. The alimentary fluoride intake involves its nutritional sources, fluoride supplements when administered and unintentionally swallowed fluoride toothpastes. The fluoride intake, besides its verifiable and significant contribution to the control of cariogenic conditions in the oral cavity, brings some risk in the period of permanent teeth development. That is why the fluoride intake in childhood ought to be well set up and controlled for achieving the maximum benefit in caries reduction and for minimizing the risk for the enamel development. The assessment on fluoride content in its most significant nutritional sources and the model estimates of fluoride intake in preschool children have been conducted with the aim at contributing the solution of the benefit/risk strategy of fluoride caries prevention. The fluoride content was estimated in bottled waters for preschool children, in instant milk formulas, in herbal teas for children and in instant products of...
The influence on postoperative analgesia by preemptive analgesia
Fricová, Jitka ; Stříteský, Martin (advisor) ; Štípek, Stanislav (referee) ; Kršiak, Miloslav (referee)
The aim of our study was to assess the changes of free radicals and other biochemical parameters after nociceptive stimulation in different experimental animal models. In patiens we detected whether preemptive analgesia had a positive effect on acute postoperative pain. Objective evaluation of pain intensity is a long-term problem because the objectification of using electrophysiological and imaging methods is currently difficult and expensive, and therefore in laboratories in the Czech Republic and many other places are used the evaluation by means biochemical methods. We implemented large experimental studies using mechanical, inflammatory and visceral nociception and we found out in particular that nitroxid and hydroxyl free radicals and singlet oxygen increased significantly after nociceptive stimulation. This increase can be suppressed by antioxidants. At the same time, we showed that some parameters of metabolism lipids, carbohydrates and proteins have also been changed. In particular, we measured the free hydroxyl radicals and singlet oxygen by EPR method in the tail of living and anesthetized rats. This method is absolutely a priority and has never been used before. Earlier experimental results were partially clinically verified using different types of acute and chronic pain in humans...
Biochemistry of polyphenols effects in the treatment of vascular disease
Kondrashov, Alexey ; Štípek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Pecháňová, Olga (referee) ; Matouš-Malbohan, Ivan (referee)
This Ph.D. thesis deals with the deep analysis of polyphenols effects toward vascular disorders. This work provides a number of experimental results of studying both the effects of natural bioactive compounds in red wines and potatoes, and their application to the experiments which includes experimental animal models with spontaneous hypertension. Methods and equipment used in experimental studies allowed us to make several new statements regarding the universal nature of the relationships between the antioxidant capacity and the polyphenolic content in examined foodstuffs. Besides this it is also recognized that food is a source of minerals which also contribute to the total antioxidant capacity and therefore may have influence the endogenous antioxidant enzyme system by providing the essential cofactors. Experimentally we have found that the concentrations of magnesium known for its therapeutic action in wine and red wine extract are comparable to the mineral waters recommended for the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases. Moreover, synergistic interactions between selected minerals have been found. The key issue of bioavailability of polyphenols for supporting the idea of the beneficial effects of diet rich in fruits and vegetables toward vascular disease prevention...
The role of intrarenal interaction in the renin-angiotensin system; nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the regulation of renal function and blood pressure in experimental models of hypertension
Kopkan, Libor ; Červenka, Luděk (advisor) ; Štípek, Stanislav (referee) ; Widimský, Jiří (referee) ; Kittnar, Otomar (referee)
The role of intrarenal interaction in the renin-angiotensin system; nitric oxide and oxidative stress in the regulation of renal function and blood pressure in experimental models of hypertension Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
The role of iNOS and fertile cells in the mechanism of development of hypoxic lung hypertension
Baňasová, Alena ; Hampl, Václav (advisor) ; Štípek, Stanislav (referee) ; Pelouch, Václav (referee) ; Ošťádal, Bohuslav (referee)
The role of iNOS and fertile cells in the mechanism of development of hypoxic lung hypertension Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
The role of arachidonic acid metabolites via cytochrome P-450 in the pathogenesis of hypertension
Čertíková-Chábová, Věra ; Tesař, Vladimír (advisor) ; Wilhelm, Jiří (referee) ; Štípek, Stanislav (referee)
Background: 20-HETE and EETs, metabolites derived from arachidonic acid by cytochrome P-450 (CYP), are part of the effector mechanisms in the renin-angiotenzin-aldosterone system. They regulate vasoconstriction/ vasodilation and natriuresis and thus contribute to the regulation of blood pressure. Hypertensive rats transgenic for mouse Re-2 renin gene (TGR) are a good model for hypertension caused by a single gene and very suitable for the study of the role20-HETE and EETs in vivo. Hypothesis: Abnormal production and/or activity of 20-HETE and EETs contributes to the development and or/maintenance of high blood pressure in TGR. Materials and methods: Hypertensive TGR heterozygous males of various ages weres studied. Normotensive HanSD animals (the same genetic background without Ren-2 gene) were used as controls. Three complex studies were performed: Study 1: Chronic inhibition of CYP with non-selective inhibitors 1- aminobenzotriazol (ABT) and CoCl2 in young prehypertensive and adult hypertensive animals and respective controls. Study 2: Acute experiments with selective inhibitors N-metyl-sulfonyl- 12,12-dibromododec-11- enamide (DDMS) and N-metylsulfonyl-6-(2- propargyloxyfenyl)-hexamide MS-PPOH. Study 3: Chronic selective inhibition of 20-HETE production by DDMS and selective inhibition of EETs...
The role of NSD(P)H oxidase in signal transduction
Vejražka, Martin ; Štípek, Stanislav (advisor) ; Pelouch, Václav (referee) ; Zima, Tomáš (referee)
Reactive oxygen species are usually assumed as dangerous, cytotoxic substances included in pathogenesis of variety of diseases due to their ability to damage biomolecules. However, ROS also play an indispensable role in many physiological processes. Low concentrations of ROS are involved in signal transduction as a part of pathways regulating protein phosphorylation, gene expression, NO availability or intracellular Ca2+. They are important for cell cycle control and apoptose. In the last years, the role of ROS in regulation of vascular tonus is intensively studied. NAD(P)H oxidases are supposed the major source of ROS. These are enzymes similar to phagocyte NADPH oxidase, a key enzyme of phagocyte respiratory burst in immune response. We have studied NAD(P)H oxidase of vascular wall in normotensive and hypertensive rat. Activity of superoxide production by NAD(P)H oxidase differ between cells from normotensive and hypertensive rat. Control of NAD(P)H oxidase activity is also changed in hypertensive animals, at least with respect to the effect of angiotensin II and uric acid. In our experimental work, we encountered unexpected properties of apocynin, a known inhibitor of phagocyte NADPH oxidase. We proved that apocynin can increase ROS production. The reason is that NAD(P)H oxidase is not inhibited directly...

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