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Complex characterisation of medical herbs and study of their utilization in food industry as a source of functional components
Burdějová, Lenka ; Kráčmar, Stanislav (referee) ; Šilhár, Stanislav (referee) ; Polovka, Martin (advisor)
Presented thesis deals with the complex characterization of extracts from medical plants using spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques, with emphasis on the influence of solvent, post-harvest treatment of the sample, location and year of production on selected parameters. Part of the work is devoted to application of selected extracts from medical plants in suitable form into beverages. The thesis is divided into two parts. At the first part of the work combination of electron paramagnetic resonance, ultraviolet visible spectroscopy, liquid chromatography and inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry was applied for characterization of aqueous, ethanol and dimethylsulfoxide extracts from 10 selected medical plants, which were collected from two different locations during two years (2015, 2016) and post-harvestly treated by two ways (freezing, drying). In total, 39 parameters were determinated: namely total phenolic compounds content, total flavonoids content, 14 specific phenolic compounds, colour characteristics in the CIE L*a*b* system (L *, a*, b *, C*, h°, BI), radical-quenching activity using the cation radical of the 2,2'-azino-bis- (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid), antioxidant/pro-oxidant activity using the spin trapping technique in the presence of 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrrolin-N-oxide (DMPO)/potassium peroxodisulphate and content of 15 minerals (Al, As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Pb, Zn). The results confirmed that the studied parameters of medical plants are influenced by the extraction system, post-harvest treatment of samples, year of production, origin of samples (locality) and species composition. It has been shown that the type of extraction solvent significantly affects the composition of the extracts. On the basis of these analyzes, for food application – the isolation of the main functional components (phenolic compounds, flavonoids) –50% ethanol, post harvest treatment by drying and samples of Mentha piperita, Melissa officinalis, Hypericum perforatum and Salvia officinalis were selected. The second part of the thesis was focused on the application of selected extracts of medical plants to beverages (syrups). The above mentioned plants, 25% ethanol instead of 50% ethanol (due to the limitation of the ethanol content in final raw material), were selected for the application. At first, extraction of medical plants was optimized. Suitable ratio of material and solvent (1:10), extraction time (8 h) and herb absorbency (50–62 %) were determined. The prepared extract after filtration was applied to the syrup concentrate in different ratios to produce one-species syrups and further sensorially tested to select the suitable recipe, the best flavour and basis for the production of two-species syrups. The mint syrup was the most tasty and generally the most acceptable one-species syrup, and sage syrup was selected as the basis for two-species syrups. Further, the most appropriate recipes of the two-species syrups were chosen, the most sensorially acceptable one was selected and further tested if it would be appropriate to colour them. Preferentially, it has been found that it is not necessary to colour two-species syrups. On the basis of the sensory analysis, it has been found that peppermint and sage-peppermint syrups were the most tasty and acceptable syrups, which could be, after further testing, produced industrially to enrich the food market.

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