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Selected copular verbs and their adjectival complements in contemporary written and spoken English
Coufalová, Adéla ; Lukešová, Lucie (advisor) ; Šaldová, Pavlína (referee)
The present thesis studies the copular verbs and their co-occurrence with adjectival complements in contemporary written and spoken English. The theoretical part of this work first describes the copular verbs in terms of their types and types of complements they take. A corpus-based approach to copular verbs follows. A part of the theory also provides an overview of the terminology that is used with copular verbs. The work consists of two parts: the theoretical part which introduces the topic and describes the features of both the principal copula be and other copular verbs and the analytical part which analyses written language data excerpted from the Araneum Anglicum corpus and spoken language data from the Spoken BNC2014 corpus. The analytical part focuses on the following seven verbs: feel, look, seem, remain, become, go and get and their adjectival complements. These adjectives are then analysed in terms of their frequency and collocability with the verbs. The collocate lists of all verbs are then compared between the two corpora. Finally, the analysis also attempts to categorize the adjectives semantically. The analysis also focuses on adverbs which occur in these constructions and which function is to modify the adjectives. The results of the analytical part are summarized in the conclusion.
Single uncomplemented adjectives available, responsible, and possible in pre-/post-head position
Petrechová, Sára ; Šaldová, Pavlína (advisor) ; Sláma, Jakub (referee)
The thesis is a qualitative corpus-based analysis focusing on three single uncomplemented adjectives, namely available, responsible and possible in their pre- and post-head position, and analysing features determining the two adjectival positions. The analysis is based on the syntactic and semantic properties proposed by Cinque (2010), which are applied to corpus examples with the intention of attesting or not these properties, namely deictic/generic meaning of adjectives, non- /restrictiveness, stage-/individual-level interpretation, and non-/specificity-inducing character of adjectives. The analysis also employs analyses from other theoretical studies by Bolinger (1952), James (1979) and a corpus-based study by Blöhdorn (2009). The abovementioned properties were attested as relevant in the examples of pre- and postmodifying available and responsible, while the adjective possible showed unclear results. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the quantification, reference, presupposition and semantic meaning play a significant role in determining the adjectival position. Key words: uncomplemented, adjective, adjectives, pre-head position, post-head position, premodification, postmodification, presupposition, quantification
Nominal vs adjectival when/where relative clauses
Kynčlová, Kateřina ; Šaldová, Pavlína (advisor) ; Vašků, Kateřina (referee)
The present thesis compares nominal relative clauses and adnominal relative clauses with a general antecedent with the focus on omissibility of the antecedent. General antecedents time, place, thing, or person should be omissible in adjectival relative clauses, which results in a potential alternation of adjectival and nominal relative clauses. Using the data drawn from the British National Corpus (BNC), this thesis examines the hypothesis that it is possible to omit all general locative and temporal antecedents introducing adjectival relative clauses without a significant change in meaning, and tries to identify syntactic or semantic constraints in cases where the omission does not seem viable. Fifty examples of adjectival and fifty examples of nominal relative clauses served as a material for this thesis. It was observed that certain constructions, syntactic functions and syntactic structures disallow the omission of the antecedent regardless of its generality often due to the nature of the fused relatives where and when which do not sufficiently indicate the nominal function of the clause. Furthermore, their locative or temporal nature prevents their occurrence with free and static prepositions whose presence is in such structures redundant. Key words: relative clauses, nominal relative clauses,...
Available and responsible as modifiers
Dudáková, Petra ; Šaldová, Pavlína (advisor) ; Sláma, Jakub (referee)
The objective of the thesis is to describe and compare the modifying uses of two adjectives which can appear both as premodifiers as well as bare postmodifiers, namely available and responsible. Both modifying positions are examined with respect to the textual environment, the complexity of noun phrases and adjective phrases in which the adjectives function, reference and other features in order to outline the patterns in which these two adjectives appear. The data for the analytical part have been extracted from the British National Corpus using the basic query and limiting the search to the written part of the corpus. After manual assessment of the initial samples of 500 concordance lines, 154 concordance lines containing the adjective available and 147 containing the adjective responsible proved to be suitable for the analysis. The final samples of the data are further categorized and analysed concerning the complexity of the noun phrase, premodification, postmodification and complementation of the adjectives, semantic preference of the head nouns, and the motivation for the pre- or postnominal placement of the modifiers. Key words: adjective, adjective phrase, premodification, postmodification, complementation, attributive function, predicative function, postpositive function, bare adjective,...
Rhetorical Aspects of Political Speeches: Remain or Leave?
Stejskalová, Rozálie ; Šaldová, Pavlína (advisor) ; Tichý, Ondřej (referee)
This thesis analyses rhetorical aspects of political discourse in two speeches given on Brexit by British politicians, David Cameron and Boris Johnson. Our study characterizes the formal aspects of the speeches, analyses the genre and arrangement of the speeches, and compares three modes of persuasion (pathos, logos, ethos) which are created through the employment of various rhetorical devices typically used in political discourse. The focus of our study is on metaphor, metonymy, syllogism and prolepsis. The objective of the thesis is to determine whether the political speakers put an emphasis on one of the three modes of persuasion in their speeches and how this contributes to the persuasiveness of their speeches. The study is based mostly on the concepts of traditional rhetoric and the methodology used and described by Jonathan Charteris-Black (2014), (2018) who combines traditional approaches to political discourse with approaches from critical discourse analysis. Therefore, the next objective of our analysis is to discover whether the application of this methodology provides insight into the style of political discourse.
The Use of Punctuation, Emoji and Emoticons in YouTube Abusive Comments
Bočková, Renata ; Šaldová, Pavlína (advisor) ; Tichý, Ondřej (referee)
This thesis attempts to contribute to the study of punctuation marks (including emoji and emoticons) used in computer-mediated communication. It aims to describe their role in abusive comments on YouTube videos with LGBT content and the extent to which their use differs in respectful and hateful comments on such videos. The analysis concentrates also on how the distribution of punctuation marks differs in relation to the polarity, content and length of comments. The thesis also provides a comparison of the frequency of the occurrence of punctuation marks in both respectful and hateful comments. In addition to that, this paper attempts to classify emoji and emoticons according to their role in the text. Key words Computer-mediated communication, YouTube, emoji, emoticons, punctuation, Internet communication
Ecocritical discourse analysis of corporate environmental reports
Novák, Vladimír ; Šaldová, Pavlína (advisor) ; Hořejší, Michal (referee)
This thesis investigates corporate environmental discourse by focusing on the language of corporate environmental reports. It seeks to find out more about how corporations talk about environmental problems and how they position themselves in relation to these. The theoretical underpinning draws from ecolinguistics, specifically ecocritical discourse analysis, which critically evaluates discourses on the environment. Environmental reports published by the company Toyota are analysed through corpus linguistic techniques which help to identify the salient concepts and then further scrutinize their textual environment to uncover the dominant discourse patterns. The analysis reveals that the aim of the reports is portray Toyota as a company which actively protects the environment, which confirms the PR nature of the reports. As a result, negative information or data are downplayed and the company distances itself from these by obliterating its role (through devices such as nominalisation, passive voice or intransitive verbs). Ecological problems as such are addressed rarely and serve more as a background for the company to improve its public image. If they occur in the reports, the link between the problems and human activity is not explicitly stated. The ecological problems are also discussed as...
Reference patterns of "this" and corresponding Czech equivalents
Čížková, Markéta ; Klégr, Aleš (advisor) ; Šaldová, Pavlína (referee)
This MA thesis is first of all concerned with the distribution of different types of reference of the English demonstrative pronoun this. Reference can be divided into exophoric (personal, spatial, temporal, discourse, social, empathetic, and emotional deixis), endophoric (anaphora and cataphora), and non-phoric reference (introductory and recognitional). The second aim of this thesis is to study the way by which the individual occurrences of the pronoun this with different reference are translated into the Czech language. The sample that was studied consisted of 219 occurrences of this collected from three British plays: The Caretaker (1960) by Harold Pinter, The Public Eye (1962) by Peter Shaffer, and The Real Inspector Hound (1968) by Tom Stoppard. The Czech translations of these plays were used for the second part of the research. The analysis of the plays showed that the most frequent type of reference of this is exophoric deictic reference, more precisely its subtype spatial deixis. The outcome of the translational analysis was the finding that this is most frequently translated by the Czech demonstrative pronoun ten. Keywords: demonstrative pronoun this, reference distribution, exophora, deixis, endophora, non-phoric reference, Czech translation equivalents
Indefinite Article and Definiteness of Nouns in Corpus-based ELT
Bulantová, Barbora ; Gráf, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šaldová, Pavlína (referee)
This BA thesis aims to compare two distinct approaches towards grammar explanation in ELT: deductive and inductive. The deductive method is commonly used in traditional curricula. The learners are presented with the metalinguistic information on the target pattern, which is followed by practice activities. The second method uses inductive reasoning - the learners are provided with texts containing the target linguistic pattern, from which they form hypotheses about the rules of its use. The thesis presents a quasi-experimental study with 25 upper- intermediate Czech secondary-school students, which was conducted to determine which of the approaches is more beneficial for teaching English grammar. Another purpose of the study was to compare the corpus data as an authentic study material in contrast with concocted model sentences in a language textbook. The indefinite article was chosen as the target linguistic feature. The theoretical part is divided into several sections. Firstly, it provides a linguistic account on the use of the indefinite article, with A Comprehensive Grammar of the English Language and Mluvnice současné angličtiny na pozadí češtiny as the primary sources. The second section describes the indefinite article as a target linguistic feature within the frames of ELT and SLA. It...

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