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Possibilities of using 3D laser scanning in geotechnical practise
Kukutsch, Radovan ; Kajzar, Vlastimil ; Šňupárek, Richard ; Waclawik, Petr
We are experiencing the penetration of modern and smart technologies in all sectors of human activity, including mining and geotechnics. One of these technologies is 3D laser scanning, which has seen significant technological advancements over the last decade and has become an integral part of underground construction monitoring as a tool to enable comprehensive, accurate and unbiased capture of the spatial situation in digital form. This development was behind the fact that since 2013, 3D laser scanner has been used by the Institute of Geonics of the Czech Academy of Sciences as a necessary part of the geotechnical monitoring of mine works, when it is possible to precisely detect and quantify the time-space changes caused by man's intervention in the rock mass compared to the traditional established measuring methods. A leading project of recent years was the monitoring of the strain stress state of the rock massif during the 30th seam extraction during the trial operation of the Room and Pillar extraction method in the CSM Mine shaft safety pillar where, besides many other measuring instruments, 3D laser scanning was used for the convergence measuring of roadways, especially for capturing any deformation changes on the permanent pillars. A complementary function was the comparative evaluation with the results of other tools, e.g. with data measured by horizontal extensometers. The subject of the article will be a general description of the possibilities of using 3D laser scanning in geotechnical practice on spatial data acquired during the monitoring lasting almost 3.5 years, when important phenomena were detected in the movement of the pillar walls and the floor heave in the CSM Mine in the tens of cm, sometimes up to 100 cm.
Possibilities of using 3D laser scanning in geotechnical practise
Kukutsch, Radovan ; Kajzar, Vlastimil ; Šňupárek, Richard ; Waclawik, Petr
We are experiencing the penetration of modern and smart technologies in all sectors of human activity, including mining and geotechnics. One of these technologies is 3D laser scanning, which has seen significant technological advancements over the last decade and has become an integral part of underground construction monitoring as a tool to enable comprehensive, accurate and unbiased capture of the spatial situation in digital form. This development was behind the fact that since 2013, 3D laser scanner has been used by the Institute of Geonics of the Czech Academy of Sciences as a necessary part of the geotechnical monitoring of mine works, when it is possible to precisely detect and quantify the time-space changes caused by man's intervention in the rock mass compared to the traditional established measuring methods. A leading project of recent years was the monitoring of the strain stress state of the rock massif during the 30th seam extraction during the trial operation of the Room and Pillar extraction method in the CSM Mine shaft safety pillar where, besides many other measuring instruments, 3D laser scanning was used for the convergence measuring of roadways, especially for capturing any deformation changes on the permanent pillars. A complementary function was the comparative evaluation with the results of other tools, e.g. with data measured by horizontal extensometers. The subject of the article will be a general description of the possibilities of using 3D laser scanning in geotechnical practice on spatial data acquired during the monitoring lasting almost 3.5 years, when important phenomena were detected in the movement of the pillar walls and the floor heave in the CSM Mine in the tens of cm, sometimes up to 100 cm.
Bolts loading in the stronly stressed rock mass
Waclawik, Petr ; Sahendra, Ram ; Šňupárek, Richard
The trial test of new mining method “Roadway-Pillar” was finished at the underground coal mine – ČSM Mine. The wide ranging monitoring was focused on the load bearing capacity of coal pillars and strata deformation changes induced by the roadway-pillar mining method. The results of monitoring allowed bolts loading and loading characteristics to be described. Further, an attempt is made to understand the rock bolt loading characteristics at different stages of rib dilation using numerical modelling with the available properties of rock mass and reinforcement for the studied site. Elastic and Mohr Coulomb strain-softening constitutive models are considered in FLAC3D to evaluate the performance of the rock bolts.
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Roadways stability within coal excavation by room and pillar mining method at the great depths
Šňupárek, Richard ; Waclawik, Petr ; Kukutsch, Radovan
In order to verify the stress-strain state of mining using the room and pillar method at a depth of up to 900 m below the surface, an extensive system of geotechnical monitoring and observation of deformations and surface movement was implemented. Based on the results of the stress-strain monitoring, detailed analysis of roadway stability from the point of view of the convergence, deformation behavior of the surrounding rock mass and the function of the reinforcement used in the two monitored areas with different geological and operational conditions was carried out.
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Stability of corridors in the coal-pillar excavation process at deep depths
Šňupárek, Richard ; Waclawik, Petr ; Kukutsch, Radovan
In order to verify the stress-strain manifestations of the corridor-pillar excavation at a depth of up to 900 m below the surface, an extensive system of geotechnical monitoring and observation of deformations and surface movement was implemented. Based on the results of the stress-strain monitoring, detailed analysis of corridor stability from the point of view of the convergence, deformation behavior of the surrounding rock mass and the function of the reinforcement used in the two monitored areas with different geological and operational conditions was carried out.
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Parametric study of usability of selected surveying equipment for monitoring of mine workings stability in undermined areas
Kajzar, Vlastimil ; Kukutsch, Radovan ; Koníček, Petr ; Waclawik, Petr ; Šňupárek, Richard
Although the deformation measurements are in mining practice routine activities, the development of information and surveying technology shows, that it is possible to approach this problematics in a new way. One of the options is the application of terrestrial 3D laser scanning technology, which can be successfully used both for purposes of monitoring - deformations of objects on undermined area and mine workings at all.\nSubmited parametric study presents the use of laser technology in the research activities of the Institute of Geonics, v.v.i., within the ICT-PU project. This study deals with technical and theoretical aspects of laser scanning, which verification in situ has been a precondition for the subsequent successful application of this technology both on the surface and in the mining environment. The main scope of the study is dedicated to the deployment of selected technology in solving specific tasks. In the undermined areas were achieved knowledge used in solving the problems of monitoring the stability of slopes and rock faces of mining chasm. In the underground mine workings, this technology has been successfully deployed for the purposes of the spatial deformation monitoring of selected longwall corridor at mine Karvina and also for the long-term monitoring of coal pillars in Room and Pillar pilot project at ČSM coal mine.\nAt the end of a parametric study is special space devoted to the limiting factors of 3D laser scanning and also to the summary of best practices of scanning in such highly exposed conditions.\n
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Stability and stabilization of coal pillars by using rockbolt support
Ďuriš, L. ; Šňupárek, Richard
The paper deals with the issue of stability and stabilization of coal pillars by using rockbolt support. Application of the method room pillar can become very beneficial to the place where it can be somehow limited extraction using longwall face. This method is respectful of the overburden and excavated areas stay stable. The problem with this method is currently designing pillars so as to sufficiently handle pass the load.
Bukov PVP underground research laboratory - geotechnical conditions of construction
Souček, Kamil ; Vavro, Martin ; Staš, Lubomír ; Koníček, Petr ; Ptáček, Jiří ; Waclawik, Petr ; Vavro, Leona ; Lednická, Markéta ; Kaláb, Zdeněk ; Šňupárek, Richard ; Vondrovic, L.
Bukov PVP Underground Research Laboratory (Bukov URL) is designed to be a test site for the evaluation of properties and behavior of the rock mass which is of similar type as selected candidate sites in the Czech Republic. It is situated at a depth corresponding to the proposed storage depth of the final locality for the national deep repository of high-level radioactive waste. The Bukov URL, the construction of which has begun in 2013, is situated in the southern part of the Rožná uranium deposit, at the northeastern periphery of the Strážek Moldanubicum close to its contact with the Svratka Unit. The rock mass is composed of relatively monotonous rock sequences primarily of a volcanosedimentary origin. They are currently represented, due to the subsequent tectonometa-morphic development, by migmatized biotite paragneisses up to stromatitic and/or oftalmitic migmatites, amphibole-biotite to biotite-amphibole gneisses, and amphibolites. The workings of the Bukov URL are situated on the level 12 of the Bukov-1 shaft, at the depth of about 600 m below the earth’s surface. The Bukov URL is still under construction and the research works by the consortium of several organizations – ÚJV Řež, a.s., Czech Geological Survey, Institute of Geonics of the CAS, v.v.i., and Arcadis CZ, a.s. - are carried out simultaneously. The research activities focus on a complex geological and geotechnical characterization of the rock mass of interest, which is vital for the realization of further research in situ. This paper briefly describes the technical solution of the Bukov URL and the process of its construction.
Cable bolts utilization in thick seam mining
Kukutsch, Radovan ; Šňupárek, Richard ; Waclawik, Petr
On the basis of different field and laboratory studies, a mining method called „cable bolting based thick seam depillaring“ has been developed CSIR-CIMFR to meet the technical challenges arising during underground extraction of a thick coal seam of India. This method is based on two simple principles of rock-mass reinforcement: (a) improvement in strength of the reinforcement with increase in the confinement and (b) dilution in strength of the reinforcement under tensile condition of the host rock mass. This method is being used by a number of Indian coal mines for depillaring of total thickness (up to 7.5 m) of a thick coal seam (developed along the floor horizon) in single lift. This paper presents application of the method at Madhusudanpur 7 Pit and Incline mine.
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Methodical instructions for secure stability of mine roadways in great depth
Koníček, Petr ; Šňupárek, Richard ; Konečný, Petr ; Ptáček, Jiří ; Kukutsch, Radovan ; Kajzar, Vlastimil ; Waclawik, Petr ; Souček, Kamil ; Staš, Lubomír ; Hortvík, Karel ; Konečný, Pavel
Methodology provides instructions for safe and economic design of roadways for mining and mining design companies in conditions of the Czech part of the Upper Silesian Coal Basin. Methodology covers area of all used roadway support as a steel arch support, rock bolt and cable bolt support as well as methods of grouting for stability and reinforcement of roadways.

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