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Economic Research Bulletin (2017, No.2). Volume 15, Number 2, November 2017, Effects of Monetary Policy
Česká národní banka
Monetary policy is a one of the core functions of modern central banks. The recent economic crisis –the “Great Recession”, as it is sometimes dubbed–created new challenges as regards properly understanding the functioning of monetary policy and its effects and interactions with other policies. This issue of the Economic Research Bulletin presents a sample of CNB staff research that contributes to the understanding of this important and exciting research agenda.
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Global Economic Outlook - September 2017
Česká národní banka
The September issue of Global Economic Outlook presents the regular monthly overview of recent and expected developments in selected territories, focusing on key economic variables: inflation, GDP growth, leading indicators, interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. In this issue, we also look at the real exchange rate phenomenon from the perspective of what it tells us about EU countries. The real exchange rate reflects movements in both the nominal exchange rate and relative price levels. This means it can be used, for example, to assess a country’s convergence efforts (towards the core euro area countries), to discuss the central bank’s effect on the distribution of real appreciation (between the nominal exchange rate and the inflation differential channels) and to track the external competitiveness of an EU economy, and hence also the euro area. This is the line followed by our article, which examines the period from the establishment of the euro area in 1999 to the present.
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Global Economic Outlook - August 2017
Česká národní banka
The August issue of Global Economic Outlook presents the regular monthly overview of recent and expected developments in selected territories, focusing on key economic variables: inflation, GDP growth, leading indicators, interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. In this issue, we continue our summer mini-series on the economic impacts of Brexit on the United Kingdom. In the July issue, we focused on the short-term effects, whereas this issue summarises the conclusions of the most important studies analysing Brexit from the longer-term perspective. These studies concur that the UK economy will lose out by leaving the EU, a prediction that is gradually being confirmed by actual economic developments. However, it is still difficult to estimate the real extent of the economic impacts of Brexit, as it will depend primarily on the terms negotiated between the UK and the EU. In our analysis, we therefore present the main possible scenarios quantifying how much the UK will pay for Brexit in terms of loss of GDP.
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Central Bank Monitoring - September 2008
Česká národní banka
The past three months have seen the financial crisis subsiding only slowly, as well as corrections to the prices of oil and some agricultural commodities. In Spotlight we take a look at the importance of house prices for monetary policy and their practical treatment in some central banks. Our selected speech is RBNZ Governor Alan Bollard’s address on flexibility and the limits of inflation targeting.
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Global Economic Outlook - July 2017
Česká národní banka
The July issue of Global Economic Outlook presents the regular monthly overview of recent and expected developments in selected territories, focusing on key economic variables: inflation, GDP growth, leading indicators, interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. In this and the following August issue, we also focus on one of the main current economic phenomena – Brexit. At the end of June, a year elapsed since the referendum in which the United Kingdom voted to leave the European Union. In both articles we focus on assessing this decision’s economic impacts on the UK. The July issue is devoted to the short-term effects. It is apparent from a whole range of indicators that the conclusions of the many studies that warned of a negative Brexit shock for the UK economy are gradually materialising – from the initial visible nervousness of the financial markets, through the announcement of the referendum, to creeping and gradual impacts on the real economy. The final form of the terms negotiated with EU institutions will decide whether these impacts will be short-or long-term. This aspect – along with possible medium-term outlooks – will be the subject of a follow-up article in the August issue.
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Central Bank Monitoring - June 2017
Česká národní banka
Most of the central banks under review, including the ECB, are keeping their interest rates at low levels. The US Fed was alone in raising its key interest rate by 0.25 pp to 0.75%–1.00% as expected, and is addressing the issue of reducing its balance sheet. Although inflation is close to central banks’ inflation targets in all the economies under review except Switzerland, most of the banks are maintaining their unconventional monetary policy programmes. The Swedish Riks bank raised its target amount for government bond purchases. Spotlight focuses on the options and strategies for reducing the US Federal Reserve’s balance sheet. In our Selected Speech, SNB Governor Thomas J. Jordan talks about the effect of the increase in the SNB’s balance sheet on its investment policy.
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Central Bank Monitoring - March 2017
Česká národní banka
Most of the central banks under review, including the ECB, are keeping their interest rates still at low levels. The US Fed was alone in raising its key interest rate by 0.25pp, in line with expectations. Inflation has now exceeded the 1% level in all the monitored economies except Switzerland and seems to be heading towards central banks’ inflation targets. However, most of the banks are still maintaining their unconventional monetary policy programmes. Spotlight focuses on modern forms of central bank communication. In our Selected Speech, the deputy governor of the Bank of England Sir Jon Cunliffe presents the results of a survey of the investment behaviour of firms, an essential element of the monetary policy transmission mechanism.
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Global Economic Outlook - June 2017
Česká národní banka
The June issue of Global Economic Outlook presents the regular monthly overview of recent and expected developments in selected territories, focusing on key economic variables: inflation, GDP growth, leading indicators, interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. In this issue, we also focus on assessing of the accuracy of the forecasts for 2016 published in Global Economic Outlook last year and the year before. The institutions under comparison were moderately optimistic with their economic outlooks. Their forecasts for GDP growth and inflation for 2016 expected higher figures on average than the subsequent outcomes. The outlooks for nominal interest rates in the USA and the euro area were also overestimated. The dollar did not appreciate against other currencies as much as expected by analysts. The price of oil was also mostly overestimated compared to the actual outcome.
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Global Economic Outlook - May 2017
Česká národní banka ; Sekce měnová ; Odbor vnějších ekonomických vztahů
The May issue of Global Economic Outlook presents the regular monthly overview of recent and expected developments in selected territories, focusing on key economic variables: inflation, GDP growth, leading indicators, interest rates, exchange rates and commodity prices. In this issue, we focus on the question of whether the oil market is approaching equilibrium. We consider in more detail, among other things, the behaviour of OPEC and US shale oil producers observed over the last three years. We also attempt to identify the causes of occasional sharp swings in oil prices.
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Economic Research Bulletin (2017, No.1). Volume 15, Number 1, May 2017, Trade and External Relations
Česká národní banka
One of the key determinants of economic development in small open economies such as the Czech one is the external environment. Understanding the linkages to the external world is therefore of utmost importance for policymakers. It is not only international trade that is important. Capital flows and exchange rate fluctuations are also among the economic phenomena that should be monitored and analysed. The articles in this Research Bulletin represent a sample of the CNB’s research dealing with modelling of trade and capital flows and exchange rate fluctuations. The first article decomposes aggregate export growth in the Czech Republic in 2005–2014. The second article presents research aimed at improving the trade forecast. The third article also contains research relevant to economic forecasting. The fourth article studies the role of exchange rate movements.
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