National Repository of Grey Literature 15 records found  1 - 10next  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Role of interneurons and neural circuit dysfunctions in Alzheimer's disease
Rakovets, Yuliia ; Stuchlík, Aleš (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
Alzheimer's disease is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorder that results in altered network activity, in particular cognitive decline. Majority people with AD experience memory impairment, poor judgment, disorientation and learning difficulties. Several hypotheses try to explain the cause of the disease, but it's poorly understood. Due to the fact that changes in brain structure arise years before clinical symptoms emerge, the available therapeutic treatments can only reduce the impact of neurodegeneration, but not to reverse. Interneurons, as a part of neural circuits, play an important role in the formation of cognitive abilities. Most of interneurons in CNS are inhibitory and they effectively control the network synchrony. Network hypersynchrony is an increased synchronization of neural activity and it's linked to AD pathology. Dysfunction of interneurons is resulted in altered network activity in patients with AD. Keywords: AD, brain, rat, interneurons, hypersynchrony.
Impact of circadian system disruption on development of gastrointestinal disorders
Kubištová, Aneta ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
The ability to sense 24-hour cycles in external environment and to adapt to them is present in a great array of species living on the Earth. Mammals possess internal time-keeping system which is composed of circadian clocks located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypotalamus and peripheral clocks in various tissues and organs of the body. These clocks are adapting to the changes of external environment, such as light and dark cycles or feeding cycles. Peripheral clocks in the organs of the digestive system are synchronized with the signals derived from the central clock in the SCN and also with signals from food intake. Discordance between these signals may result in development of various diseases of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) related to insufficient digestion or even in higher risk of developing a cancer. This bachelor thesis is generally aimed at circadian rhythms in the body, with the focus on rhythms in the GIT. It will deal with the importance of the circadian rhythms for correct GIT functions. Furthermore, the thesis is focused on connection between the desynchonization of the circadian clock and GIT disease development, namely of obesity and cancer.
Molecular mechanisms of circadian clock entrainment by daily regime in food intake
Kapoun, Jiří ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
Circadian clocks form an endogenous time-keeping system present in most organisms, synchronizing physiological and behavioural processes with perodically changing environmental conditions. The system comprises of the master clock in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus and numerous subsidiary clocks in peripheral tissues. Its molecular design is constituted by the clock genes, which are rhythmically expressed, form a series of transcriptional/translational feedback loops and influence the expression of various other genes involved in metabolic pathways. The peripheral clocks are dependent on the master clock, although they can be entrained with external cues like food intake timing and diet composition. This desynchronization leads to the distruption of clock gene oscillation, which can potentially have serious impact on metabolic processes and increase the risk of metabolic disorders. The aim of this thesis is to summarize current knowledge on the relationship of molecular chronobiology and nutrition with a focus on the molecular mechanisms through which can food, especially its intake timing and composition, influence the crosstalk between clock gene expression and cellular metabolism. The thesis also emphasises the potential effect of circadian clock disruption on the risk of metabolic...
Comparison of episodic memory research approaches in human, from the viewpoint of cognitive psychology and neuroscience.
Kočí, Markéta ; Vlček, Kamil (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
Episodic memory allows a person to recall events of one's personal past. During the retrieval, memory is re-experienced as a vivid imaginary experience, accompanied by a rich temporo-spatial context and autonoetic consciousness - awareness of the self. Further episodic memory characteristics are captured in its several models. Some of them focus on the encoding, consolidation and retrieval processes, other on the spatial context, time duration of events, autobiographical context or characteristic feelings during retrieval. The models differ in some aspects and converge in other aspects, and given together they provide general view on episodic memory approaches.
Hippocampal neurogenesis in the adult brain and its changes in neuropsychiatric diseases
Brukhnová, Alena ; Kubová, Hana (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
The aim of my thesis is to summarize the information about neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in the adult brain. I examine the process of maturation, migration of immature neurons and functional significance of neurogenesis in the area. In the adult brain it is very important for proper spatial perception and learning. In the next chapter I focus on some significant neurodegenerative and neuropsychiatric diseases such as epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease or depression. During each of them leads to diverse changes and bnormalities in neurogenesis in hippocampal area. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Incidence and role of the purinergic P2X7 receptor in the immune system
Piskačová, Kateřina ; Zemková, Hana (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
It has been shown recently that extracellular ATP and its metabolite adenosine are key mediators in the immune system. Depending on the concentration, ATP may act as an activator or an inhibitor to the immune response, whereas adenosine is generally well known as a specific immunosupressor. Signals delivered by extracellular ATP and adenosine are detected and transduced by purinergic P2- and P1- receptors, respectively. In principle, all cells of the immune system express P2X, P2Y and adenosine P1 receptors on their plasmatic membrane. Therefore, the purinergic signaling extends to all components of the immune and inflammatory responses, including neurodegenerative diseases. This knowledge triggered a wave of interest in research, development and synthesis of new compounds having effect on P1- and P2- receptors that could help in the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases and neurodegenerative diseases. This bachelor thesis will summarize the most recent knowledge on the role of the P2X7 receptor in these processes. This subtype of P2-receptor is unique because it is involved in the release of cytokines from immune cells and plays a role in the cell growth and apoptosis.
Role of glutamatergic transmission in mechanisms of addiction to morphine.
Moutelíková, Karolína ; Hejnová, Lucie (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
Drugs are used by mankind since ancient times. One group of these substances are opioids. Opioids have antinociceptive effects and can induce euphoria and relaxation as well. A chronic usage of opioids can lead to a development of drug addiction and phenomens like tolerance and sensitization. One of the most used opioids in medicine is morphine. Morphine is isolated from opium of poppy (Papaver somniferum). Direct effect of morphine is mediated via activation of μ- opioid receptors and their signal cascade. It was implicated that the usage of morphine affects other neurotransmmiter systems in the brain and these neurotransmmiter systems play a signifikant role in the development of addiction and other phenomena. One of these systems is an important excitatory brain system - glutamergic system. This bacherol thesis focuses on interrelationship between opioid and glutamatergic systems during addiction.There were described changes in a composition of glutame ionotropic receptors and changes in their expression as well as in expression of metabotropic glutamate receptors. These changes differ in various parts of the brain and in diverse stages of addiction on morphine too. In spite of all diferences, the results of studies indicate that glutamatergic receptors play a significant role in the development...
Cirkadiánní systém a neuropsychiatrická onemocnění
Šuchmanová, Karolína ; Sumová, Alena (advisor) ; Červená, Kateřina (referee)
Neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders are an important issue, affecting a great part of our population. Recently, awareness of sleep disturbances and circadian rhythm dysfunctions accompanying these diseases is growing. Although the cause of circadian clock malfunctions in neuropsychiatric disorders remains to be elucidated, they have a destructive impact on quality of life of both patients and their caregivers. Thanks to our knowledge on molecular mechanisms of the circadian clock and novel techniques, it becomes possible to study the state of the central pacemaker, as well as its' output rhythms. This thesis provides a summary of data suggesting an important role of circadian system malfunctions in patients suffering from neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. In some cases, these data also suggest new therapeutic approaches, which could in the future help to ameliorate the patients' quality of life, by improving the functioning of their circadian system. Key words: neuropsychiatric disease, circadian system, human, melatonin, clock gene

National Repository of Grey Literature : 15 records found   1 - 10next  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
5 ČERVENÁ, Kateřina
2 Červená, Karolina
2 Červená, Karolína
3 Červená, Klára
2 Červená, Kristýna
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