National Repository of Grey Literature 206 records found  1 - 10nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
CX3CR1+ migratory dendritic cells in the mechanisms of central tolerance
Březina, Jiří ; Filipp, Dominik (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Display of thousands of self-antigens in the thymus is fundamental for the establishment of central tolerance as its failure can lead to the development of autoimmunity. Medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs) and thymic dendritic cells (DCs) constitute essential populations of antigen presenting cells (APCs) which present these self-antigens to developing T cells. While mTECs produce and present antigens in self-autonomous manner, DCs can hijack mTEC-derived antigens by the process of cooperative antigen transfer (CAT). It is well found that CAT is essential for working central tolerance, however, the overall heterogeneity of thymic APCs participating in CAT remains unclear. Using transgenic mouse models and multicolor flow cytometry analysis, we determined that APCs involved in CAT are exclusively of CD11c+ phenotype. Within these cells, we identified previously unrecognized CX3CR1+ subset of migratory DCs (mDCs) exhibiting monocyte/macrophage markers. These CX3CR1+ mDCs are more efficient in CAT than their CX3CR1- counterparts and reveal robust antigen presenting properties with the capability to present CAT-acquired antigen. Genetic ablation of CX3CR1+ mDCs resulted in increased cellularity of CD8+ and CD4+ thymocytes, indicating importance of this mDC subset for negative selection of...
Interaction between hydrogenosomes and endoplasmic reticulum in Trichomonas vaginalis
Kučerová, Jitka ; Tachezy, Jan (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria encounter structure (ERMES) is a protein complex tethering ER and mitochondria. ERMES consists of four core subunits - Mmm1, Mmm2 (Mdm34), Mdm10 and Mdm12. It was first discovered in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and most functional information is based on studies of this organism. ERMES affects mitochondrial distribution and morphology, participates in lipid trafficking and is important for homeostasis of the cell. In Trichomonas vaginalis, the human urogenital parasite, three genes for putative, highly divergent components of ERMES complex were predicted. However, the cell localization of these proteins and their function is unknown. This thesis is focused on investigation of ERMES components in T. vaginalis, their cellular localization, interactions between components and identification of their possible interacting partners.
Exploring novel strategies targeting HBV
Šmilauerová, Kristýna ; Grantz Šašková, Klára (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
An effective and safe vaccine against Hepatitis B virus already exists, yet morbidity and mortality of this illness are still high. The key to developing a reliable treatment is a deep knowledge of the virus' life cycle and functions of all its components. In the presented work we explored an interactome of the Core protein of the Hepatitis B virus. Using proximity-dependent biotin identification technique (BioID) coupled to mass spectrometry we have identified a list of potential candidates that are either significantly enriched (in total 105 proteins) or less abundant in the presence of the HBV Core protein in the cell (40 proteins). The list also includes known HBV Core interacting proteins SRPK1 and SRPK2, and p53 protein whose expression is known to be repressed due to the HBV Core interaction with the E2F1 transcription factor. Many of the newly identified possible HBV Core interacting proteins are involved in biological processes already known or are suspected to be influenced by the HBV such as translational and transporting processes or gene expression and macromolecule production. Overall, this work comprehensively characterizes the interaction landscape of the HBV Core protein in the live cells and might thus serve as a reliable start for in depth HBV-host interaction analysis. Key...
Regulation of LAT trafficking to the plasma membrane
Rakhimbekova, Anastasia ; Cebecauer, Marek (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Linker for activation of T cells is a palmitoylated transmembrane adaptor protein, which is expressed in most of immune cells, but not in immature and mature B cells. It plays an important role in T-cell activation and maturation. LAT is synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum. Its sorting to the plasma membrane is controlled with various determinants, such as properties of the transmembrane domain and structural motifs in the intracellular part of the protein. Some of those determinants are important for posttranslational modifications, export from the Golgi apparatus and, probably, membrane microdomain targeting, while others interact with COPII machinery and mediate protein export from the endoplasmic reticulum or targeting to endosomes. Keywords: LAT, functional motifs, protein sorting, plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus
Non-classical MHC class II positive cell types, function and immunological context
Tušková, Liliana ; Černý, Jan (advisor) ; Brdička, Tomáš (referee)
Major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC-II) is a group of glycoproteins responsible for the presentation of exogenous antigens to T-lymphocytes. Besides the "classical" antigen presenting cells (APCs), numerous cell types were proven to be able to express MHC-II molecules either constitutively or under specific conditions. Often, the stimulus for MHC-II expression is interferon g, a pro- inflammatory cytokine typically activating promoter IV of the Class II Transactivator. Many of the non- classical MHC-II-expressing cells can serve as APCs, activating or attenuating T-cell proliferation depending on the expression of costimulatory molecules. Additional research identified some unusual functions of MHC-II molecules on non-classical cell types, including a role in prenatal development or mating. Modulation of the MHC-II expression could potentially serve many promising therapeutic purposes and new research can lead to deeper understanding of the topic. Keywords: MHC-II, ILC, basophils, TEC, antigen presentation, CIITA, IFN-gamma
Assembly and signaling of IL-17 receptor complex.
Šemberová, Tereza ; Dráber, Peter (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Interleukin-17 is a proinflammatory cytokine that contributes to the host protection through initiation and amplification of inflammation. Inflammation is a crucial mechanism of immune system which protects host from invading pathogens and toxic agents. However, uncontrolled activation of the immune system may also promote autoimmune chronic diseases. Due to this, understanding how proinflammatory signaling pathways are activated and propagated is important in order to prevent autoimmune and chronic inflammatory disorders. This text will discuss molecular mechanisms of interleukin-17 signal pathway leading to the progression of inflammatory immune responses with focus on activators and inhibitors of proximal interleukin-17 receptor signaling. Keywords Interleukin-17, proinflammatory cytokines, signal transduction, receptor signaling complex, autoimmune disorders, inflammation
Pathophysiological development and differentiation of cells during hematopoiesis
Moudrá, Alena ; Štěpánek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee) ; Kalina, Tomáš (referee)
In recent years, a great effort has been deployed towards a better understanding of the molecular changes in cells and in the bone marrow (BM) environment that contribute to the development and progression of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Among others, the aberrant hematopoietic stem cells in MDS often display increase in DNA double strand breaks, genomic instability with common loss or rearrangement of chromosomes and an ineffective response to DNA damage, a phenomenon that has been linked to the onset of cellular senescence. Additionally, the BM microenvironment can become more pro-inflammatory. In our effort to better understand the contribution of the BM microenvironment on MDS progression, we analyzed the expression profiles of cytokines in the BM microenvironment in all stages of MDS/AML and found several proinflammatory cytokines that increase with disease progression. Also, by repeated sampling of patients over the course of 5-azacytidine therapy, we were able to assess the changes in the proinflammatory cytokine milieu with the progression of the disease. Additionally, we aimed to identify the candidate markers for the improvement of MDS prognosis. We focused on naturally occurring germline polymorphism of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) gene (NQO1*2)...
Programmable nucleases in human therapy
Šlaufová, Marta ; Kašpárek, Petr (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Most genome disorders cause severe symptoms and are usually incurable. Recent, rapid development of programmable nucleases (PNs) brought new possibilities for the treatment of many diseases, such as genetic disorders, infectious diseases or cancer. PNs are enzymes, which enable site specific DNA cleavage that can lead to targeted modification of desired genomic loci. They are composed of separable non-specific cleavage domain and DNA- binding domain. The DNA binding domain is in the form of modular DNA-binding proteins or complementarity-based pairing of the oligonucleotide. The non-specific cleavage domain mediates DSB stimulation, which is necessary for further genome editing. Development of zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) followed by transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) enabled the first therapeutic approaches based on targeted manipulation of human genome. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-Cas technology brought further simplification to the method and broadened the availability of PN-based toolkits. This thesis will provide a summary of the recent developments, application of PNs in the therapy of human patients and potential obstacles preventing their implementation in clinics.
The transcription factor C/EBPƴ as a novel regulator in mast cell development and function
Jedlička, Marek ; Alberich-Jorda, Meritxell (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee)
Mast cells contribute to the activities of innate and adaptive branches of the immune system. They participate in pro-inflammatory responses to a wide range of pathogens, such as parasites, bacteria, and other foreign agents. These beneficial properties are in contrast to the contribution of mast cells to certain pathologies, such as asthma, allergy, autoimmune disorders, anaphylaxis, and systemic mastocytosis. Thorough knowledge of mast cell biology in health and disease is critical for the development of new therapeutic approaches. However, molecular mechanisms that control mast cell development and function are still incompletely defined. Our preliminary data indicate that the transcription factor C/EBP is a key player in mast cell biology. Here, using in vitro and in vivo models, we determine how C/EBP regulates the commitment of hematopoietic progenitors towards mast cells, and modulates mast cells function. These efforts provide novel insights to the role of C/EBP in hematopoiesis, and contribute to a better understanding of the mechanisms governing mast cell biology. Key words Mast cells, C/EBP, transcription factors, bone marrow-derived mast cell cultures, mast cell development, Cebpg conditional knockout mice
Lipid Membranes at the Nanoscale: Single-Molecule Fluorescence Approach
Koukalová, Alena ; Černý, Jan (advisor) ; Malínský, Jan (referee) ; Benda, Aleš (referee)
The complexity of cell membranes is far from being only a simple assembly of lipids and proteins separating cells from the surrounding environment. Each of the thousands of different membrane components performs its specific role in cellular functions, since a multitude of biological processes is mediated by membranes. The understanding of the molecular basis of these processes is one of the important aims of current biological research. Our research employing single- molecule fluorescence methods (e.g. FCS, FCCS, FLIM-FRET) has made a contribution to the knowledge of membrane lateral organization or mechanism of membrane fusion. Furthermore, we revealed the mechanism of membrane activity of a small natural compound. As native cell membranes are very complex structures, we performed the experiments on simplified model lipid membranes that allow studying lipid-lipid or lipid-protein interactions at the molecular level in a controlled way. The first part of this thesis deals with the mode of action of a membrane active secondary metabolite didehydroroflamycoin (DDHR). We demonstrated that DDHR is a pore-forming agent and that this activity is influenced by the presence of cholesterol. Direct visualization of intrinsic fluorescence of DDHR revealed its preferential partitioning into membrane areas...

National Repository of Grey Literature : 206 records found   1 - 10nextend  jump to record:
See also: similar author names
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