Doctoral theses

Doctoral theses 13,848 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
S100 Proteins in Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Colorectal Neoplasia
Morávková, Paula ; Kohoutová, Darina (advisor) ; Ehrmann, Jiří (referee) ; Zavoral, Miroslav (referee)
S100 proteins in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal neoplasia Inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer represent a serious medical and socio- economic problem worldwide. Despite the progress in diagnostic of both diseases, there is no specific serum maker, which would allow to detect risk group of patients. Our paper focused on importance of serum S100 proteins in inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal neoplasia: (1) association of serum S100A4 with inflammatory bowel disease, ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, (2) association of serum S100A6, S100A8, S100A9 and S100A11 with colorectal neoplasia and (3) association of serum S100P with colorectal cancer. A total of 253 subject were enrolled: 40 healthy controls, 16 patients with ulcerative colitis, 93 patients with Crohn's disease, 20 patients with non-advanced colorectal adenoma, 20 patients with advanced colorectal adenoma and 62 patients with colorectal cancer. We confirmed significantly higher serum concentrations of S100A4 protein in patients with ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. In Crohn's disease, serum S100A4 was significantly higher in patients with colonic and ileocolonic involvement. We did not confirm association of serum S100A4 with fibrostenosing phenotype of Crohn's diseases and with perianal involvement. We...
Dynamic control of magnetization for spintronic applications studied by magneto-optical methods
Zahradník, Martin ; Veis, Martin (advisor) ; Herranz, Gervasi (referee) ; Legut, Dominik (referee)
Two important mechanisms in preparation of ultrathin films of magnetic oxides were systematically investigated in this work. First, influence of epitaxial strain on resulting magneto-optical properties of La2/3Sr1/3MnO3 (LSMO) ultrathin films was studied. The investigated films were grown by pulsed laser deposition on four different substrates, providing a broad range of induced epitaxial strains. Magnetic properties were found to deteriorate with increasing value of the epitaxial strain, as expected due to the unit cell distortion increasingly deviating from the bulk and effect of the magnetically inert layer. A combination of spectroscopic ellipsometry and magneto-optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was used to determine spectra of the diagonal and off-diagonal elements of permittivity tensor. The off-diagonal elements confirmed presence of two previously reported electronic transitions in spectra of all films. Moreover, they revealed another electronic transition around 4.3 eV only in spectra of films grown under compressive strain. We proposed classification of this transition as crystal field paramagnetic Mn t2g → eg transition, which was further supported by ab initio calculations. A key role of strain in controlling electronic structure of ultrathin perovskite films was demonstrated. Dynamic application of...
Towards efficient numerical computation of flows of non-Newtonian fluids
Blechta, Jan ; Málek, Josef (advisor) ; Herzog, Roland (referee) ; Süli, Endré (referee)
In the first part of this thesis we are concerned with the constitutive the- ory for incompressible fluids characterized by a continuous monotone rela- tion between the velocity gradient and the Cauchy stress. We, in particular, investigate a class of activated fluids that behave as the Euler fluid prior activation, and as the Navier-Stokes or power-law fluid once the activation takes place. We develop a large-data existence analysis for both steady and unsteady three-dimensional flows of such fluids subject either to the no-slip boundary condition or to a range of slip-type boundary conditions, including free-slip, Navier's slip, and stick-slip. In the second part we show that the W−1,q norm is localizable provided that the functional in question vanishes on locally supported functions which constitute a partition of unity. This represents a key tool for establishing local a posteriori efficiency for partial differential equations in divergence form with residuals in W−1,q . In the third part we provide a novel analysis for the pressure convection- diffusion (PCD) preconditioner. We first develop a theory for the precon- ditioner considered as an operator in infinite-dimensional spaces. We then provide a methodology for constructing discrete PCD operators for a broad class of pressure discretizations. The...
Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
Vejražková, Eva ; Žák, Pavel (advisor) ; Faber, Edgar (referee) ; Lysák, Daniel (referee)
Eva Vejražková: Human Cytomegalovirus Infection in Patients after Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation - Summary Introduction: Specific anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) treatment reduces CMV-related morbidity and mortality in patients after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) but carries a risk of viral resistance. The viral resistance after HSCT treatment is still a relatively unexplored phenomenon. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of CMV infection in patients within one year after HSCT in our centre. The goal was also to analyse CMV infection data, incidence of graft-versus-host disease and other clinical endpoints by comparing two patients' cohorts that were administered two different Thymoglobuline Genzyme (TG) doses as part of the HSCT conditioning regimen. Incidence of treatment failure cases and viral CMV drug resistance were also to be determined. Two methods of sequence analysis (Sanger and Next-Generation Sequencing, NGS) were compared in cases of proven viral resistance. Patients cohort and methods: The study included 101 adult patients after allogeneic HSCT for haematological diseases treated between July 2012 and December 2014 at the Hradec Kralove University Hospital, Czech Republic. CMV DNAemia was determined by quantitative real-time PCR, the...
The Process of Acquiring the Linguistic Concept of Conjunction by Primary School Pupils
Martáková Styblíková, Jana ; Hájková, Eva (advisor) ; Höflerová, Eva (referee) ; Čechová, Marie (referee)
Title: The Process of Acquiring the Linguistic Concept of Conjunction by Primary School Pupils Author: Mgr. Jana Martáková Styblíková Department: Czech Language Department Supervisor: doc. PhDr. Eva Hájková, CSc. Abstract: The dissertation deals with the issue of acquiring the linguistic concept and the term of the conjunction by primary school pupils of 1st-5th, works with children's preconceptions in the language area and introduces how the pupils of the first grade of the elementary school work with the term conjunction. It maps the cognitive processes of pupils in the context of the acquisition of the conjunction language phenomenon and the important moments in which the primary child preconception changes into the language term in the pupils mind. Introduces with the process of conceptualizing the language reality, in which he detaches from the naive child concept of conjunction to the specific linguistic term of a conjunction as a verbal type. It describes the individual parts of the research, in which the individual thought movements of pupils in the area of linguistic gripping of the term conjunction are gradually transformed. It presents the individual research methods as tools by which we monitor the development of the preconception of the conjunction in the linguistic concept. Managed interviews...
Social aspects of ageing regarding homeless people in connection with systemic measures taken in the city of Prague
Pěnkava, Pavel ; Matoušek, Oldřich (advisor) ; Koldinská, Kristina (referee) ; Vágnerová, Marie (referee)
Homelessness is a socio-pathological phenomenon, caused by the inability of an individual to deal with crisis situations and leading to the lost of relationships but also the material environment. As a result of the above, the social exclusion of the individuals gradually becomes unchangeable. Here, Pěnkava (2013) describes the vertical decline within the social stratification, which brings a deep frustration and in a number of cases leads to resignation on the efforts to deal efficiently with the unfavorable situation. The causes of such collapse are multifactorial and hence, in order to solve them there is cooperation on the level of multidisciplinary teams needed. However, numerous issues are currently being solved by social workers only, who in many cases are forced to replace experts in fields such as law, psychology, pedagogy of leisure time, geriatry or medicine. The central theme of the dissertation is dealing with the possibilities and limitations of people without home in old age living in the Capital City of Prague. Considering the factors of age, the diversity in satisfying their needs and the associated risks involved, is this a specific group of people that is, moreover, at immediate risk to their lives and health. As a consequence, the dignity of these people is being hurt not only...
Developement of syntax in written Czech at the pupils of lower secondary education
Doležalová, Eliška ; Šmejkalová, Martina (advisor) ; Zimová, Lucie (referee) ; Janovec, Ladislav (referee)
This dissertation thesis focuses on the topic of the development of syntax of written Czech at the pupils of lower secondary education on the material of written compositions of story-telling. The thesis characterises the form of current syntax of written Czech and its development depending on the age of pupils. The analysis is bases on two collections of texts - the texts in the first collection were produced by 6th to 9th primary school grade pupils based in a town near Prague, the second collection was produced by 6th to 9th primary school grade pupils in Prague. These data were then supplemented with corpus material. In total, there were 302 compositions analysed. Moreover, to depict the reality in its complexity, also curricular and educational materials were being analysed as well as lesson observations and structured interviews conducted with teachers. The comparison between the particular constituents of written syntax enables the conclusions to be drawn being based on the analysed material giving evidence on the current state and development of written syntax with pupils of 6th to 9th grade of primary school, as well as possible disparities of development of particular syntax constituents to be identified and some recommendations for teaching methodology to be conveyed.
Dealing with the Communist Past: Transformation of History Education in Czech Republic after 1989
Najbert, Jaroslav ; Činátl, Kamil (advisor) ; Beneš, Zdeněk (referee) ; Hnilica, Jiří (referee)
The thesis aims to stimulate the debate on the need of improvement of the history education in the Czech Republic. It concentrates on describing the consequences of current historical situation, defined by the dealing with the communist past discourse, to history education. First, it analyses the very concept of dealing with the communist past, using available linguistic and statistic tools (e.g. Czech National Corpus and Mediasearch archive) and multidisciplinary literature. Then the three studies follow. The first case study explores the public debates on teaching of communist history that took place in the public since 1989 and included some criticism of the quality of history education. It also analyses conceptualizations of history education within the national curriculum since 1989. As a result, two dominant discursive types that have had an influence on the public debate about history education and teaching practice are defined. The second study explores the memory, pedagogical and discursive practices related to the application of oral history method for both remembrance and history education. It examines both positive but also problematic aspects of memory practice in education related to the stories of 1950's persecution. The third study discuses results of empirical research aimed on...
Forgotten Apocalypse - The Czech Reflection of the Retreat of the German Heeresgruppe Mitte
Jakl, Tomáš ; Beneš, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Hutečka, Jiří (referee) ; Mücke, Pavel (referee)
Title: Forgotten Apocalypse - The Czech Reflection of the Retreat of the German Heeresgruppe Mitte Author: Mgr. Tomáš Jakl Abstract: There are war campaigns that can be described simply, others more difficult to describe, and some cannot be reconstructed by a continuous narrative at all. The events in the Czech Lands in the first two weeks of May 1945 belong to the most difficult to describe. The fact that there was the largest of last German fighting groups of armies is well known. It is also commonly known that it was the Central Army Group commanded by Field Marshal Ferdinand Schörner. Significantly less is known that as a result of the outbreak of the Czech Uprising, this group of armies retreated across the rebellious territory to the demarcation line between the US and the Red Army The last desperate illusion of German soldiers was that they would contact the Americans and jointly drive the Russians out of Europe. Allied Commander-in-Chief in the West, General Dwight David Eisenhower, did not intend to do anything after the death of US President Roosevelt, which the Soviet dictator could even interpret as a similar development. Not only did he forbid General Patton from crossing the agreed line in advance with the Soviets, visually accommodating the retreating Germans, but the US troops also released...
Model membranes studied by advanced fluorescence techniques and molecular dynamics simulations
Melcrová, Adéla ; Hof, Martin (advisor) ; Heyda, Jan (referee) ; Konopásek, Ivo (referee)
In this thesis, we start with the description of the biophysical properties of the plasma membrane models upon signaling processess such as the increased cytoso- lic concentration of calcium ions, or posttranslational modifications of membrane proteins. Calcium signaling is characterized by a rapid increase of its cytosolic concentration. We identify calcium binding sites and characterize the binding in the plasma membrane models of increasing complexity from pure phospholipid bilayers, through cholesterol and peptide rich lipid membranes, to membranes ex- tracted from HEK293 cells. We use Time-Dependent Fluorescent Shift method, which provides direct information on hydration and mobility in defined regions of a lipid bilayer, accompanied with molecular dynamic (MD) simulations, which give molecular details of the studied interactions. The initial step of signaling mediated by PAG protein is its double palmi- toylation. We investigate changes of the biophysical properties of both the lipid membrane and the peptide itself upon the incorporation of the palmitoyls. Em- ploying all atom MD simulations, we study inter- and intramolecular interactions as well as changes in membrane hydration, thickness, or lipid ordering. The second part of the thesis, realized in a direct collaboration with a phar- macological...

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