Doctoral theses

Doctoral theses 13,715 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.00 seconds. 
Pathobiochemistry of inhibin A and its application in prenatal screening of chromosomal abnormalities
Loucký, Jaroslav ; Průša, Richard (advisor) ; Procházka, Martin (referee) ; Matouš-Malbohan, Ivan (referee)
Aims: Currently, prenatal testing is based on an ultrasound examination, the testing of certain biochemical markers and most recently, also on the analysis of fragments from the extracellular DNA of the fetus in the mother's blood. The aim of this work was to verify whether inhibin A testing during pregnancy can help improve the results of prenatal screening (risk assessment) for Down syndrome and thus reduce the number of unnecessarily invasive procedures. Methods: The concentrations of inhibin A were measured using chemiluminescent immunoassay with paramagnetic particles on the Access system from Beckman Coulter. Risk assessments of screenings were performed using Alpha software, LMS. The results were compared in two groups of screening tests, a triple test and an integrated test. In the first case, the risks in these two groups were determined without inhibition A and included only high-risk results. Subsequently, the inhibin A results were included in the screening protocols and the existing risks were revised. Results: The first group of screening tests (triple test) included a total of 277 pregnant women. The second group (integrated test) included 91 pregnant women. The resulting risk for pregnant women without the determination of inhibin A was higher or equal to 1:300 (triple test),...
The Role of the Grand Chambers of the Supreme Courts and of the Plenum of the Constitutional Court in Judicial Law-Making
Kadlec, Ondřej ; Kühn, Zdeněk (advisor) ; Šimíček, Vojtěch (referee) ; Wintr, Jan (referee) ; Tryzna, Jan (referee)
The Role of the Grand Chambers of the Supreme Courts and of the Plenum of the Constitutional Court in Judicial Law-Making Abstract Grand Chambers (GCs) are considered to be the most authoritative judicial bodies within multi-panel supreme courts. They are said to secure the unity, continuity, and quality of these courts' decision making. This thesis explores these claims in relation to GCs of three Czech highest courts - the Supreme Court, the Supreme Administrative Court, and the Constitutional Court. What is the role of the GCs in the decision-making of these Courts and how do the GCs fulfil their role? The thesis addresses these questions from both doctrinal and empirical angles. Doctrinally, it analyses with respect to all three courts the criteria for selecting GC cases, the character of GC decisions, and the status of GC precedents. Empirically, it explores how many and what type of cases the case-selection mechanism generates and how the GC's decisions influence the decision- making of other Court formations. On the basis of this analysis, the main argument of the thesis is that courts' use of GCs influences the way the multi-panel courts develop the law. The three key parameters of any GC that the thesis identifies are (i) the justification of its authority, (ii) the means of asserting its authority...
Lapse of financial market participants
Zrůst, Lukáš ; Bakeš, Milan (advisor) ; Boháč, Radim (referee) ; Dřevínek, Karel (referee)
The aim of this work was to analyze complexly the failure of financial market entities, with the accent of a banking institution, comparison with the European legal system, but also with the emphasis on solving the financial crisis of the banking system and its ways of resolving or maintaining the activity, possible insolvency of banking entities. At the end of the thesis, the author also deals with practical aspects of selected banks. From the above point of view, three sub-concepts are key to this work, which deserve a brief explanation as they permeate the work and gradually reveal the basic issues of the subject matter, but also their hypotheses outlining the next direction of research, and at the same time offers some legislative guidance material solution of the given issue. The first term is the "starting point". In this work, there is a detailed survey of research to find answers to the question as to what are the basic points of the financial market entities as well as banking institutions, but above all their failure. The hypothesis in this context is the evolutionary development of the areas concerned, in particular financial law in a broad sense, and the extent of its impact on the current legal regulation of financial market participants and the resolution of their failures. The second...
Sukuk as Islamic Financial Instruments from the Perspective of Czech and European Law
Vojtěch, Jakub ; Bakeš, Milan (advisor) ; Marková, Hana (referee) ; Radvan, Michal (referee)
Sukuk are a special kind of securities based on Islamic law. Being an up-to-date and increasingly important instrument, sukuk are traded in financial markets of not only Muslim countries. The aim of the dissertation is to review this Islamic legal institute in its entirety and to examine it from the point of view of the Czech and European Union legal regulation of securities and financial instruments. The starting point of the dissertation is the assumption that by studying foreign law and comparing its institutes, it is possible to achieve a better understanding of one's own legal regulation and possibly create new solutions that would otherwise be hidden in the standard context of understanding national law. The dissertation deals with sukuk both in terms of their theoretical definition provided by the Islamic legal theory (the idealistic approach) as well as from the point of view of their actual form in practice as products of Islamic securitization (the pragmatic approach). The analysis of the examined legal institute results in a new definition of the concepts of sukuk and Islamic securitization. The paper further concentrates on the structures of a total of seven main types of sukuk, namely: (i) Sukuk al-Ijarah, (ii) Sukuk al-Murabahah, (iii) Sukuk as- Salam, (iv) Sukuk al-Istisna'a, (v)...
Intercultural dialogues and the creativity of knowledge - A study on Daya Krishna
Coquereau-Saouma, Elise Isadora Marie Colette ; Sepp, Hans Rainer (advisor) ; Bhushan, Nalini (referee) ; Raghuramaraju, A. (referee)
This work discusses the contribution of the philosopher Daya Krishna (1924-2007) to the realm of intercultural dialogues. A leading figure of academic Indian philosophy, Daya Krishna left an immense and eclectic, yet mainly unexplored, corpus. Firstly, I offer one approach to his diverse philosophy by focusing on his philosophical project as a whole. His project attempts to unveil the presuppositions of thinking, which can only be effectuated in dialoguing across philosophical traditions founded on different presuppositions. Applying his project to the realm of intercultural dialogues, I begin by questioning the limits encountered by recent intercultural theories aiming at deconstructing Eurocentrism and establishing a global philosophical dialogue while responding to their postmodern European heritages. As a counterpoint, I introduce the challenges of Anglophone Indian philosophers in India, facing an uprooting from their own traditions. They feel this uprooting as cultural subjection, deprived of their own philosophical past. Within this context, Daya Krishna connected isolated communities of thinkers by organizing multilingual dialogues (called 'saṃvāda') between traditional paṇḍits, ulama and Anglophone philosophers. I reconstruct some of these experiments, thereby emphasizing methodological...
Pathophysiological development and differentiation of cells during hematopoiesis
Moudrá, Alena ; Štěpánek, Ondřej (advisor) ; Černý, Jan (referee) ; Kalina, Tomáš (referee)
In recent years, a great effort has been deployed towards a better understanding of the molecular changes in cells and in the bone marrow (BM) environment that contribute to the development and progression of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) to acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Among others, the aberrant hematopoietic stem cells in MDS often display increase in DNA double strand breaks, genomic instability with common loss or rearrangement of chromosomes and an ineffective response to DNA damage, a phenomenon that has been linked to the onset of cellular senescence. Additionally, the BM microenvironment can become more pro-inflammatory. In our effort to better understand the contribution of the BM microenvironment on MDS progression, we analyzed the expression profiles of cytokines in the BM microenvironment in all stages of MDS/AML and found several proinflammatory cytokines that increase with disease progression. Also, by repeated sampling of patients over the course of 5-azacytidine therapy, we were able to assess the changes in the proinflammatory cytokine milieu with the progression of the disease. Additionally, we aimed to identify the candidate markers for the improvement of MDS prognosis. We focused on naturally occurring germline polymorphism of NAD(P)H dehydrogenase (quinone 1) gene (NQO1*2)...
Plasma Heat Flux to Solid Structures in Tokamaks
Vondráček, Petr ; Horáček, Jan (advisor) ; Gunn, James P. (referee) ; Svoboda, Vojtěch (referee)
Plasma Heat Flux to Solid Structures in Tokamaks Petr Vondráček Energy and particle exhaust is the key issue for future fusion reactors based on magnetic plasma confinement, namely for tokamaks. Good understanding of processes controlling plasma heat fluxes impinging the first wall of tokamaks is of a main concern for fusion research. This doctoral thesis is focused on experimental investigation of plasma heat fluxes in different locations of the COMPASS tokamak. A new infrared thermography system was built for this purpose as a part of this PhD research. There are four main topics studied using the system. First of all, a narrow near-SOL heat flux channel with a very steep radial profile is characterised in HFS limited discharges. It is shown that the near-SOL heat flux decay length is consistent with the drift-based model of the SOL heat transport. Secondly, heat loading of leading edges of misaligned limiters is broadly studied. The optical approximation of the heat flux distribution around a poloidal leading edge is confirmed as a valid approach. Heat loading of a magnetically shadowed side of a toroidal limiter gap is observed experimentally for the first time confirming predictions of particle-in-cell code simulations. Thirdly, localised hot-spots caused by the impact of runaway electrons as well as...
Canonical and non-canonical signalling triggered by activated TRAIL receptors in human cells
Nahácka, Zuzana ; Anděra, Ladislav (advisor) ; Rudolf, Emil (referee) ; Vondráček, Jan (referee)
TRAIL ligand can trigger apoptosis of permissive human cells via engagement of its two pro- apoptotic receptors TRAIL-R1 (DR4) and TRAIL-R2 (DR5). Its ability to induce apoptosis independently on p53 status and to selectively kill cancer cells in vitro and in vivo made this ligand an attractive target in cancer research. However, acquired resistance of primary cancer cells, unsatisfactory outcome of clinical trials and recent studies arguing that TRAIL might under specific conditions promote cancer progression, opened new plethora of questions, which need to be addressed. Though both receptors DR4 and DR5 are ubiquitously expressed, different types of tumours show preference for either of the receptors. The relative participation of DR4 and DR5 in TRAIL- induced signalling is still largely unknown. To analyse TRAIL receptor-specific signalling, I prepared Strep-tagged, trimerised variants of recombinant human TRAIL ligands with high affinity for either DR4 or DR5 receptor. Using these receptor-specific ligands, I examined a contribution of individual pro-apoptotic receptors to TRAIL-induced signalling pathways. I found that in TRAIL resistant colorectal HT-29 cells but not in pancreatic PANC-1 cancer cells, DISC formation and initial caspase-8 processing proceeded comparably in both DR4- and...
Theoretical investigation of novel two-dimensional materials with application potential
Lyu, Pengbo ; Nachtigall, Petr (advisor) ; Maurin, Guillaume (referee) ; Straka, Michal (referee)
Electron confinement due to the two-dimensional (2D) nature of layered materials accounts for their fascinating electronic properties and for their applications in new-generation electronic devices. Moreover, the large specific surface area of 2D materials also enables their use in surface-related applications, such as catalysis and adsorption. In addition, these 2D materials are promising photocatalysts thanks to the shorter migration distance of photogenerated electrons and of electron holes. The research reported in this thesis aimed to provide atomistic insight into 2D layered materials, particularly into their structures, electronic properties and potential applications in the field of catalysis, photocatalysis and alkali metal ion batteries. Our findings are not only theoretically relevant but also open new research avenues for our experimental collaborators to improve specific properties and activities of their materials. The main results from this thesis, for five different classes of 2D materials, are summarized below. 2D covalent organic frameworks (COFs). CTF-type COFs with similar topology but different nitrogen-to-carbon ratios were investigated for their potential in photocatalytic water splitting. More specifically, torsion and bending effects on structure stability were investigated in...
Non-Western Approaches to Statehood
Karmazin, Aleš ; Hynek, Nikola (advisor) ; Pšeja, Pavel (referee) ; Ogden, Chris (referee)
This thesis studies the variation of sovereignty in the international order by analysing how the general model of sovereignty is localised in the political practice of two major non-Western rising powers - China and India. I argue that their sovereignty should be understood as liquid despite the fact that these two countries are very often seen as strong defenders of 'conservative', 'absolutist' or 'Westphalian' sovereignty. The empirical core of the thesis investigates China's approach to sovereignty in relation to Hong Kong and Taiwan and India's approach to sovereignty in relation to Bhutan and Kashmir. Based on theoretical eclecticism and pluralism, I develop a theoretical and analytical framework that accounts for constitution (construction) of the sovereignty of China and India but that also have potential for being applied more broadly. It is calibrated to elucidate that sovereignty is a liquid and fluid phenomenon. It is based on the debate between Hans Kelsen and Carl Schmitt and analytically enhanced by including the perspective of scaling (derived from Human Geography) and temporal positioning (inspired by International Relations debates on the role of time). I propose three key argument. First, I show that each of the analysed states simultaneously pursues two different modes of...

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