Doctoral theses

Doctoral theses 13,642 records found  previous11 - 20nextend  jump to record: Search took 0.01 seconds. 
Development of a new sand fly exposure test to evaluate vector control tools
Willen, Laura Adrienne André ; Volf, Petr (advisor) ; Kopecký, Jan (referee) ; Valenzuela, Jesus G. (referee)
In the Mediterranean basin, human visceral leishmaniasis caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum is a zoonotic disease that gives rise to 1,200 to 2,000 new cases annually. The domestic dog constitutes its main reservoir, of which some may suffer from a severe chronic disease, canine leishmaniasis (CanL). The sand fly Phlebotomus perniciosus is considered to be the principle vector. Saliva of bloodfeeding vectors of diseases has been used in the past to assess host exposure to vector bites and to evaluate vector control tools. This Ph.D. focused on saliva of P. perniciosus to identify exposure markers that could be used in the preparation of a new vector exposure tool. The first part of this Ph.D. aimed at validating the use of a recombinant salivary protein of P. perniciosus - rSP03B - in endemic settings of CanL. During a cross-sectional study, no significant differences between the antibody (Ab) response against whole saliva or the rSP03B were observed between different regions across the Mediterranean basin. Furthermore, the rSP03B was shown to resemble the native protein. During a subsequent study this protein was used to assess the seasonal dynamics of the canine Ab response to P. perniciosus in an endemic area of L. infantum. This study elucidated that also in a heterogeneous...
Facial approximation: An assessment of the principles of the method and analysis of the craniofacial relationships
Zedníková Malá, Pavla ; Velemínská, Jana (advisor) ; Beňuš, Radoslav (referee) ; Krásničanová, Hana (referee)
This doctoral thesis is submitted in the form of scientific publications together with theoretical introduction. The present state of knowledge of facial approximation methods is presented in the introduction. Areas of application, principles of the method and classification of the methods according to medium used are briefly described. Accuracy and limits of the method are further described as they form a base of the research of this thesis. Simultaneous existence of multiple prediction guidelines, of which the accuracy is not known or published, is typical characteristic of the facial approximation method. The aim of this thesis was to assess the accuracy of the particular prediction rules for estimation of position and size of facial parts (eyes, nose, lips), and based on the results to recommend the most accurate and suitable guidelines for middle European population. An assessment of the strength of the association between craniofacial shape and the shape of soft tissues in the profile using geometric morphometric methods, and determination of the extent to which it might be possible to predict the latter from the former were the purpose of the second part of the research. Material for this study consisted of 87 lateral head cephalograms of a recent adult Central European population (52 males...
Christian Values in Virtue Ethics
MACHULOVÁ, Helena
This research strives to illuminate the concept of "Christian values" and it points out the possible connection between this term and the ethics of values. At the beginning is introduced a reflection on the "Christian values" from both philosophical and theological point of view, then we try to find a connection between the Christian values and the ethics of values. The paper is methodologically structured in several subsequent steps. The first one is the reflection on the concept of "value" in the philosophy of values (20th century). the emphasis is put on the connection between the term "value" and the term "good", because we work on the assumption that there is some non-specific relationship between the good and the values. The following step is a theological elaborate of the term "value" that proceeds from a biblical examination, during which we concentrate non only on the term itself but also on the question if the value-focused thinking in the Scripture has a specific implicit form. Thereafter we examine the term of "value" from the systematic-theology point of view. At first we try to look into the values as an expression of the Divine perfection, then we move on to the moral-theological view, where we present the Christian interpretation of values. With this theological examination we lay the foundations for the determination of "Christian values". In the final part of the paper we present the connection between values and the ethics of values. We examine in detail the definition of the ethics of values itself, consequently we talk about the role of values in the ethics of values as well as the theological development of this doctrine. We can conclude that a satisfactory and widely accepted definition of values does not exist, which is why we also examined the term of "good" in order to find the differences between the two terms. We came to the conclusion that the difference is not convincingly explained by the ethics of values. In the theological reflection of the term "value" we tried to find a biblical foundation for values. The language analysis of the biblical texts showed that the term of values is not very frequent in the Bible and less it is in the contemporary understanding of the texts. However, deeper examination of individual texts of the New Testament showed that value-oriented statements can be found relatively often in the Bible. These statements concern the highest value, as well as the hierarchy of natural and supernatural values, etc. The next step of the theological reflection showed, that in the christian understanding, God is the source of all good/values. He is the originator and the aim of all that is and al that comes from him is good. The ethics of virtues is interesting because it differs from another normative ethics by its theological thinking. It focuses on human action from the point of view of the ultimate goal of human life. It is also associated with natural law. Indeed, each of the cardinal virtues is based on some of the basic benefits of human nature. Cultivating the virtues in life leads one to the goal of life, whether it is a naturally successful life or, in the Christian concept, eternal life, that is, communion with God. In the final step, let's take a look at the very notion of "Christian values." First of all, an inclusive concept is possible, which is based on the fact that God is the originator of all that is good, and therefore all goodness can be understood as good Christian. But then there is no difference between good and Christian good. Perhaps only in the perspective of the person who evaluates this good. Secondly, the concept of exclusive is also possible, with Christian values being what is specifically Christian, that is, what has its foundation in Revelation. In other words, it is the good / value that we would not know if it were not for Christianity.
The Effect of early treatment on psychomotor development in children with epileptic encephalopathy
Beňová, Barbora ; Kršek, Pavel (advisor) ; Příhodová, Iva (referee) ; Aulická, Štefania (referee)
Children with focal intractable epilepsy caused by MCD, FCD and TSC are in a high risk of development of cognitive delay, as a result of both drug resistant epilepsy and genetically determined abnormal structure of the neuronal networks. Epilepsy surgery represents an established and safe treatment method of focal drug resistant epilepsy, and increases the chances for these patients to be rid of epileptic seizures, anti-epileptic medication and cognitive comorbidities. Current data on genetic background of focal MCD and FCD and their comorbidities provide space to expand the diagnostic process in epilepsy surgery candidates. However, available information on genetic causes of MCD and FCD do not allow us to infer prognostic estimates on chances of seizure freedom and optimal cognitive development. Future studies should elucidate these uncertainties.
The influence of preventive driver training courses on the frequency of accidents and driving violations for Czech drivers
Slabihoudková, Tereza ; Valenta, Josef (advisor) ; Svoboda, Pavel (referee) ; Řezáč, Pavel (referee)
This dissertation deals with issues concerning driver education and driver training courses. It first deals with driver education in Czech schools and its representation in RVP.A comparison of driver education in the Czech Republic with driver education in foreign countries is presented in accordance with the results of research project Q F 44L/058/050. It also deals with the preparation of teachers for driver education in terms of a university study. The text attempts to highlight the importance of driver education throughout the entire lifetime of drivers. It covers driver education in the family, preschool, grammar school and high school education as well as preventive driving campaigns and training courses, and also in driving schools. The work also deals with differences between various ways of driving, and more specifically, those between defensive and cooperative driving. It attempts to find a delineation between these concepts in a non-uniform community of specialists. A significant part of the work deals with investigative research, which is primarily centered in interviews with transportation specialists, observation of participants in defensive driving courses and the analysis of documents. Keywords: traffic education, traffic prevention, defensive driving, cooperative driving, course of...
Measuring Czechoslovaks. Czech Society of Biotypology and Constitutional Medicine in Czechoslovakia 1937-1959
Musil, Jan ; Hermann, Tomáš (advisor) ; Šimůnek, Michal (referee) ; Svobodný, Petr (referee)
This doctoral thesis describes the formation, activities and dissolution of the Czech Society of Biotypology (1937-1959), herein used as an example of impact of the constitutional typology (human typology science) on the Czechoslovak medicine. Human constitution science (in French and Romance languages called biotypology) classifies individual human beings on the base of morphological and physiological characteristics, with particular emphasis on forecast of future trends. The core of the science focuses on correlation between the physical appearance of a person and his/her mental characteristics. The Czech Society of Biotypology (Česká společnost biotypologická - ČSB) was founded with ambitions not only to study human beings, but also to increase their potential. The whole movement was therefore conceived as an example of a sanitation scientific program in accordance with the governmental interest in rationalization of population care. The methodology of the thesis is based on Foucault's concept of biopower - change of power strategies and their constitutive influence on the development and change of social relations, values and individual strategies of persons. The story of formation and dissolution of ČSB is interpreted as a consequence of these changes. The core of the thesis consists of a...
Anisotropic tomography of the European upper mantle
Žlebčíková, Helena ; Plomerová, Jaroslava (advisor) ; Agostinetti Piana, Nicola (referee) ; Achauer, Ulrich (referee)
Title: Anisotropic tomography of the European upper mantle Author: Helena Žlebčíková Department: Department of Geophysics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University Training institution: Institute of Geophysics of the Czech Academy of Sciences (IG CAS) Supervisor: RNDr. Jaroslava Plomerová, DrSc., IG CAS Consultants: RNDr. Vladislav Babuška, DrSc., IG CAS RNDr. Luděk Vecsey, Ph.D., IG CAS Abstract: Large-scale seismic anisotropy of the continental mantle lithosphere derived from joint inversion/interpretation of directional variations of P-wave travel-time residuals and SKS-wave splitting calls for orientation of the symmetry axes to be treated generally in 3D. Nevertheless, most of the tomography studies neglect the anisotropy of the body waves completely or they are limited to either azimuthal or radial anisotropy. Therefore, we have developed a code called AniTomo for coupled anisotropic-isotropic travel-time tomography of the upper mantle. The novel code allows inversion of relative travel-time residuals of teleseismic P waves simultaneously for 3D distribution of P-wave isotropic- velocity perturbations and anisotropy of the upper mantle. We assume weak anisotropy of hexagonal symmetry with either the 'high-velocity' a axis or the 'low-velocity' b axis. The symmetry axis is allowed to be...
Diagnosis of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with emphasis on genetic testing
Tomašov, Pavol ; Veselka, Josef (advisor) ; Kohoutová, Milada (referee) ; Krejčí, Jan (referee)
Dizertační práce: Diagnostika hypertrofické kardiomyopatie se zaměřením na genetické vyšetření Autor: MUDr. Pavol Tomašov Obor: Fyziologie a patofyziologie člověka Abstract Introduction: Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is the most common monogenic cardiac disease with vast genetic and clinical heterogeneity. Genetic testing of HCM patients is important in determining the etiopathogenesis of the disease and is becoming an integral part of patient care. Aim: The aims of our work included the following implementation of genetic testing in HCM in both basic and clinical research: 1. To identify genetic variants in a novel candidate gene NEBL coding Z-disc protein nebulette in HCM patients. 2. To determine clinical and echocardiographic variables associated with the presence of mutations in the most common sarcomeric genes in the Czech population. 3. To find echocardiographic parameters useful in determining the genotype of relatives before the development of phenotype. Results: In a cohort of 95 patients with HCM we identified a novel genetic variant in a conserved spot of NEBL gene (p.H171R) in one patient. The variant was not found in a control population and was predicted to have a damaging effect on the protein's structure. In a cohort of 48 HCM patients tested for mutations in the most common sarcomeric...
Impairment of rat hippocampus after irradiation with leksell gamma knife and evoked proliferation in gyrus dentatus of the adult rat
Náměstková, Kateřina ; Syková, Eva (advisor) ; Druga, Rastislav (referee) ; Rokyta, Richard (referee)
The hippocampus is a brain structure that has been extensively studied in the context of learning and memory has been considered to be involved in processing of emotion as part of the limbic system. This organ was initially connected with the sense of smell and around 1900 the role of the hippocampus in memory was noted by Vladimir Bechterev. The significance of this structure for processing of memory was revealed after William Scoville and Brenda Millner released a report in 1957 about their 10 patients who showed impaired short-term memory after bilateral lesions to the medial temporal lobe, including the hippocampus. This form of surgery was introduced in 1954 to treat pharmacoresistant epilepsy, psychosis, and depression with therapeutic success. The severity of the mainly anterograde amnesia was related to the size of the removed medial temporal lobe portion (Scoville and Millner 1957). The most radical surgery was performed on the patient H.M., who has been seen by more than hundred investigators until today (Corkin 2002). Fig. Powered by TCPDF (www.tcpdf.org)
Phenomenology of touch. Ethical Readings of Discontinuous Paradigms
Molina García, Erika Natalia ; Novotný, Karel (advisor) ; Romer, Inga (referee) ; Schnell, Alexander (referee)
Phenomenology of touch. Ethical readings on discontinuous paradigms. Touch is not only the sense that allows us to appreciate shapes and textures. It is also the sense that allows us to feel the tenderness of a caress or the violence of a punch. It allows us to feel temperature and pain, balance and the position of our body, feelings of itching and tickling, vibrations and sexual arousal. In recent years, research on touch has blossomed in the most diverse fields, and these works are unanimous in saying that touch is a crucial factor in our lives and on our health: interhuman cooperations, pain endurance, empathy, compassion and care are all touch depending activities. Starting from a scenarisation of Western philosophy in terms of opposition between continuism and discontinuism, we reinterpret the phenomenological method, by a radicalization of the meaning of its tool (epoche), to put it at service of the analysis of touch phenomena. In this context, our work is presented in a double duality: On the one hand, it unfolds around two main thematic axes, discontinuity (self- thematization) and touch (thematization). On the other hand, it takes the shape of two distinct textual bodies, a purely philosophical one and a philo-performatic one, which intersect and thus aim to perform in the writing of the...

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